This ‘double oppression’ in the hands of the ‘whites’ as well as the ‘blacks’ has remained a major area of thrust in Walker’s fiction. Thus Alice Walker becomes an important part and parcel of ‘Black Feminism’ too. She has been credited for introducing the word ‘Womanist’ in Afro-American feminism. She portrays the economic hardships and the struggles faced by the African-American women. The dominant themes that have again and again occurred in her novels are racism, sexism, violence, rape, isolation, and a disruption of stereo-typical gender-roles.
Morrison seeks to produce literature especially of black and explores the distortion of reality by dominant group for their vested interests. Exploring the complexity of black female experiences in black and white society, she is concerned with the idea of ‘a black community’ – how it was, how it has changed and how it should be maintained. Toni Morrison can easily be read as a black feminist author. She was influenced by the ideologies of women’s liberation movements. When the problems of black women were not addressed by the white feminists as well as by Black arts movement and the civil rights movements, Black feminism emerged which emphasizes the need to include the racial and cultural differences within feminist arguments.
In her images, she expresses her thoughts on the representation that black woman has in our culture she also points out that because of our society black women aren 't able to embrace themselves as who they are because they are influenced by other cultures. Simpson portrays empowerment gender, identity, and culture in her images despite the oppression of racist culture impacts black women 's body and identity. Five-day forecast by Lorna Simpson incorporates five large boxes with days of the week Monday through Friday. It 's a way of expressing misconceptions as a black woman. In her image “five-day forecast” she has two words in each day such as; misdescription, misidentifies and mistranslate.
Whatever the girls faced throughout their lives was somehow connected by their racial background. During the time when Morrison wrote this story, racial discrimination was common and many people faced the consequences of it. This paper would try to highlight the issue of racism and how it affected people in their lives. ‘Recitatif’ the witty piece of literature by the Morrison is based on the two girls whose mother had abandoned them. They are from two different backgrounds as one is a white girl and the other is black.
Female African American writers tend to focus more on the experience of black women (which we will consider for this novel). Black women are often introduced as the minority in the race, especially seen in writings during the 1970’s. Most of these writings have female characters who have domestic duties, which can reveal the passing of traditions and cultures from one generation to the next and the role of a woman in an inconvenienced household. They also deal with the image and perception of the Black woman, whether through looks, skin color, or her voice. The woman’s narrative is often formed gradually, often times alongside a woman who has already discovered herself, but we must consider that “it may take the form of exploring one’s own abilities, needs, and desires” (Tyson, 391).
Toni Morrison’s 1981 novel Tar Baby can be seen as a fictional examination of questions raised by the changes brought about in African American communities and their consciousness by the Civil Rights Movements. Like most Morrison novels, Tar Baby deploys folklore and vernacular language to foreground her concerns with identity, oppression and subversion. The novel constitutes of dialogues that are both interracial, challenging the White American’s ordering of the world as well as intra-racial where the confrontation is between a privileged black middle class materialism and the vernacular discourse of the folk community. The novel begins with a dedication that reads: The ‘ancient properties’ here is an important phrase because it alludes to
Novels written by Toni Morrison are rooted in themes that are fundamental in order to appreciate the African American life, background and struggle. These themes delve into problematic relationships, and hardships encountered by African American people. Love as a recurring theme in the novels of Toni Morrison has a noteworthy place. This kind of extreme love not only happens as parental love but also shows itself as others forms of love. In this paper, I will deal with The Bluest Eye, Beloved, Song of Solomon, and Jazz.
It is also a journey of Celie’s transformation, of empowerment, from her struggle with the misogyny and racism surrounding her. The film’s themes provide an interesting narrative on the feminist philosophy, specifically black feminism. Black feminism is defined as a strand of feminist thought which highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class and race that shape the experiences of non-white women. Black feminists reject the idea of a single unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women, and argue that early feminist analysis reflected the specific concerns of white, middle-class women. Black feminism argues that sexism, class oppression and racism are interrelated factors that need to be overcome by black women and can also be defined as a process of self-conscious struggle that empowers women and men to actualize a humanist vision of community.
1. THEME ONE 1.1 The subjectivity of Sankara and womanist decolonisation Womanism is a empirical theoretical approach that envisages the complexities of the black female condition throughout the African Dispersion, and womanists satisfy various postmodern intellectual objectives simultaneously (Blasingame 2012: 32). First, womanists position the political, socio-cultural, and historical coercions based upon the intersectionality of race, class, and gender on black women and their bodies; womanists discern, analyse, and explicate phenomenon of being black, being female, and being oppressed. In addition, womanists place black women at the core of the discourse, not displacing them into the margins or outskirts; thus, womanists draw attention to the ways in which society and culture displace black women within sociohistorical cultural models (Blasingame 2012: 32). Even though, during the transatlantic slave trade, the experiences of enslaved black women were not colossal or homogenous in nature, womanists emphasize that one commonality subsists the oppression of black women was psychologically, politically, socioculturally, historically, and sexually immersed within the traumatic paradigm of slavery and this marginalization was essentially based upon the triangulation of a race, class, and gender (Blasingame 2012: 32).
As a literary movement, feminism in African novels has a long tradition in bringing about change in society, especially on how women are treated. It tries to elucidate unfairness and humiliation of women and focuses its attention on their emancipation and awakening. Adichie portrays her female characters not as the usual depiction of women in African novels as mere sex symbols - inferior beings who should be under the control of men – but rather as an audacious and self reliant woman. The innovative writers of Africa have a clear mental picture of the ideal society and they have stressed on the need to combine the best in the old cultural traditions with the progressive ideas of the modern world. They have also expressed their bitterness against the corruption in the independent African states and they have protested against the dictatorial forces, which are trying to mishandle the