In fact, there is no model to follow. At best, researchers base their work on their own interpretations of various purported meanings of cultural imperialism. How then can they be sure that they are all measuring or studying the same phenomenon when almost every other researcher has developed his or her own definition and interpretation of cultural
In this section, Schein’s theory of Cultural Paradigm will be described. As previously stated, for Edgar Schein to study culture in an organization is an instrument to assess the effectiveness of that organization to survive. This is only possible if a culture can contribute and not disturb the organizational process of external adaptation; which is described as the ability of an organization to adapt to the changes that occur outside the firm. But with effectiveness, he also means the organization’s capacity to integrate its internal process and to adapt to its internal changes. He asserts that there are two key factors that are determinant for a successful cultural change.
Questions can inquire about many aspects of culture. In enquiring about the multitude of ideas that encompass culture, cultural studies questions what culture actually is. Studies of praxis, emotions, sex, and breast cancer are but a few of the themes that are examines in cultural studies. Cultural studies examines the many different aspects of culture that change and
There is an interface between the theory and cultural studies because these approaches do not constitute a discourse or debate. Although terms and texts reappear within the different approaches, their meanings and weight are varied and contested. Differently, the work at the interface of the theory and cultural studies is not a blending of the strengths and insights of two fields into something
Cultural studies is an academic space of empirically, theoretically and politically engaged cultural analysis coined by British academics during the time period of 1950-1970. The concept has been further analysed and examined by theorists from different areas of expertise around the world. Based on the theorisations of Marxism came about The Birmingham and The Frankfurt school of cultural studies. In the essay I will consider the differences between these two schools in relation to their approaches to culture and audience. In particular I will compare and contrast the works of key theorists such as Adorno and Stuart Hall in relation to their theories of mass culture and audience.
Cultural criminology’s “framework is concerned with meaning, power and existential accounts of crime and punishment and control” (Hayward, 2016:300). Which allows cultural criminologist to study crime in the relation to culture and its impact on criminality. Cultural criminology believes it is always “necessary to state and restate what crime is, if nothing else a human activity” (Presdee, 2004:276). The commodification of culture relates to Cultural Criminology in the sense of the many faucets of crime and deviance and what is getting exploited through the media to the public. Commodification of crime is becoming more prevalent as time goes on as the media has such a large influence on society.
Another distinction which has had a strong impact on the study of culture is the understanding of culture as practice or culture as a system of symbols and meanings. As Hall stresses, culture is about meaning and as such “permeates all of society.” Representations, practices, values and identities have cultural meanings that are discursively constructed and tap into previous cultural discourses to be meaningful. Critical intercultural communication casts light on ways in which meanings echo cultural knowledge and are therefore difficult to identify and question – even for researchers themselves, hence a strong emphasis placed on reflexivity. The importance of “cultural resonance” has also been pointed out by scholars examining media
Later the concept of culture is presented in terms of foreign language teaching, and the popular issue of culture and how to integrate it into language teaching process is discussed in the light of the discussions raised by different researchers. Redefining it with an intercultural perspective has widened the concept of culture. From this perspective, teaching culture in foreign language classrooms is introduced with an intercultural approach. And in this approach intercultural competence is introduced and clarified by explaining its role and aims. Then, the chapter continues focusing on the implications of intercultural competence in language classrooms; specifically by discussing the role of course books in teaching intercultural competence.
Cultural Competence Through an in-depth reading of many of the literature of international social work, we find it difficult to find a definition or a unified meaning of cultural competence, but nevertheless, I will try to shed light on the most important meanings of cultural competence concept. The concept of cultural competence began to appear in the literature in the United States in the 1980s Bartoli(20013, p 49) and was a reflection of the migration movement since the fifties of the last century and thus led to the migration of America to the emergence and growth of different ethnic and ethnic groups, which also led to the existence of different cultural, religious, linguistic and health needs increased of its complexity because of its experiences in displacement and violence in all its forms.
First part of this essay will be concentrated on the theory, of how culture is affected by the US’ influence and how it changes the PR practitioners’ approach. The second part will concentrate on the way PR practitioners have to adjust their methods of approaches to suit the culture. This would show the significance of culture within PR practices. As both local and national aspects of culture are a part of a bigger international global culture that is rapidly taking shape.