At the same time, unique forms of language usage can be developed in different situations. Language and society, hence, are correlated (Halliday 1978). Many may wonder in what ways they tie in with each other and why would it be. In order to deepen the discussion and make it more concise, we will examine languages in two aspects according to the theory of codes, while the social factors will be focus on different social class. In the following paragraphs, how they are influencing each other and have formed a cycle ultimately will be discussed in depth.
Culture and cultural ties are reflected and transferred by language from one generation to the next (Emmitt & Pollock 1997, as cited in Leveridge, 2008; Leveridge, 2008). Language puts cultural reality into words and, meanwhile, is shaped by culture (Kramsch, 1998, as cited in Mirzaei & Forouzandeh, 2013). Brown (2000), similarly, says that “a language is a part of a culture, and a culture is a part of a language; the two are intricately interwoven so that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture” (p.177). Liddicoat et al. (2003) also claim that language and culture interact with each other in a way that “culture connects to all levels of language use and structures; i.e.
Metaphorical language: this is associated with literary language, its play a crucial role in the coherence of a poem or novel. Which transfer the word or the meaning with it aesthetic meaning. Mona Baker here noted about how the difficulties of equivalence in translation from the society. Chaparo focuses on sociocultural targets of the translations, he discuss her aspect of linguistics and sounds repetition rhyme. it depend on the society culture there is words with a same meaning he can use it to explain the sentence but it depend on the culture of the reader or audience , and make it fit within the literary tradition .
This chapter presents an extensive review on literature done on acculturation and cross cultural adjustment in different contexts. First, definitions of culture and cross-cultural adjustment are proposed. Theories, models and previous studies on acculturation and cross-cultural adaptation are also reviewed thoroughly. Culture definition Revisited Before commencing a review of the research on cross-cultural adjustment, it is important to discuss the concept of culture and its operationalization as it constitutes the backbone of this ethnographic study. The dynamic and relative nature of culture inevitably has led researchers not only to define it in different ways but also come up with divergent connotations and point of views.
Cultural relational approach, on the other hand, has suggested that the direction can also be the opposite - individual’s culture and taste create network structure. As Omar Lizardo has examined, people with similar cultural taste (e.g. music genres) are likely to be linked and thus creates network cluster bases on cultural homophily. Such new perspective on the relationship with the structure and culture in networks has also altered the understanding of the structural hole. Through a concept of cultural hole, Pachucki and Breiger suggested the importance of culture for bridging and creating holes between network closure.
Some cultures consider literacy as promoting abstract thought rationality, critical thinking, balanced and detached awareness, empathy and sensitivity. Whereas other cultures consider literacy a matter of memorization, transition of life stories revealing cultural heritage, values and morality. Purcell-Gates, Jacobson, & Degener (2004) provide a broader definition of this term based on their experiences as teachers and researchers. They introduce a wider term, ‘print literacy’. It concerns coding and encoding symbol systems for determined social processes in different sociocultural contexts.
1.1 Introduction The study of “cross cultural communication” is a great example of linguistic theory and how it’s applied. Researchers are often drawn towards this area of study for its vast significance; “depending on the culture, the people, and the personal relationships throughout the world.” This is further studied to interpret sentences beyond its linguistically stated sentences. This is in turn done by observing the interactions one has, the habits it instills, and “expectations of how to show what is meant by what is said. The form of communication used over the years is “language”. It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people.
Culture is defined as “a relating to the ideas, customs, and social behavior of a society” , while the clashing of two cultures through trade relations or music, literature and the exchange of experiences is called the cultural encounters or in another definition “it is the occurrence of two or more cultures coming into contact with each through conquest immigration , mass media , trade or travel “), so in this essay I am going to focus on the cultural encounter in a certain story which is called the “ out of many “ by V.S Naipaul . there is more than one type of the cultural encounter such as cooperative encounter which preserves the rights and the benefits for each culture, also we have the competitive encounter which is overriding
Another point of concern is the role of culture in using different types of Metadiscourse markers. To consider reflexive markers culturally, one will observe that language users in different cultures are using different types of Metadiscourse markers with different frequencies, so the case at hand is considering if there is any relationship between culture and using these markers and if so, how much Metadiscourse usage is affected by culture. The end result will reveal that whether all types of Metadiscourse markers can be prescribed for people of different cultures or not. In this thesis, the present researcher is going to find out if researchers of the articles relating to Metadiscourse have used Metadiscourse markers in their articles or
Several papers have proposed that different views on HR affects the development and implementation of cross-cultural management policies (Alcazar, Fernandez & Gardey, 2013; Bonache, Trullen & Sanchez, 2012). While the universalist approach where a best HR policy exists for implementation may be applicable in the past, the influence of culture due to globalisation means that HR policies must now be altered and modified to fit different cultural context as the needs of people