Often, communication among migrants and the society can create transnational fields that are specific to a migrant within a space and that can be transnational, national, regional or local. In the past, migrants had to deal with expensive calls or slow-paced post, and in some cases, communication control by the government to connect with each other. In recent years, through the advancement in communication technologies, they can communicate with their families, friends and associate abroad on a regular basis with a certain degree of privacy. Vertovec (2003) finds that “communication has considerable impact on domestic and community life, inter-generational and gender relations, religious and other cultural practices, and local economic development in both migrant sending and migrant-receiving contexts”. Research shows that improvement in communication technology has positively impacted transnational relationship (Horst 2006; Parreñas 2005; Senyurekli & Detzner 2009).
ABSTRACT: Migration is an equilibrium process which reduces regional disparities at different stages of development and a process which is as old as human civilization. Migration including refugee flows, asylum seekers, internal displacement and development induced displacement has increased considerably in volume and political significance since the end of the cold war. It has become an integral part of North – South relationships and is closely linked to current processes of global social transformation. This makes it as important for sociologists to develop empirical research and analysis on migration as it is to include it in their theoretical understandings of contemporary society. The study of migration is linked to research on economic
What is new, however, are the factors which impact on transnational migration, inter alia, greater access to transportation and cheaper more effective methods of communication, which has resulted in extensive transnational movement and enabled migrants to maintain contact with their homeland (Levitt 2004, Glick-Schiller 2005:239). In particular, research has shown that migrants utilise a number of methods in order to maintain connections to their homelands while simultaneously becoming embedded in the countries of residence (Glick-Schiller 2003; Levitt and Glick-Schiller 2004). While there has been extensive cross-disciplinary research with regard to transnational migration, the role and influence of religion, within this context, is a relatively new field of interest. This is in spite of evidence that most religious movements, from inception, have been global and transnational (Levitt 2003). Levitt’s research indicates that migrants have a tendency to take their religion with them and their religion plays a role in enabling them to “craft new lives” which span their homeland and host country (Levitt 2007).
Wherever trade-and-commerce and tourism business is involved there will be a significant need for intercultural communication in a day-to-day communication process. Intercultural communication competence and the intercultural communication skills are one among the necessary requisites to survive with betterment in the contemporary state of affairs, not only with professional life but with day-to-day social life too. We find intercultural communication needs in the long span of human history. However, twentieth and twenty-first centuries are the landmarks for the requirement. Globalization process is putting a drastic increment in the percentage of the average folks involving in intercultural communication in the present social set up.
As the migration of peoples and cultures across borders has accelerated, the growing interdisciplinary field of diaspora studies has provided a much needed study of the structural features that characterise these movements. Indicate forced migration, shared community in foreign nations, and collective desire to return to an existent or imagined homeland. Political economy, diasporic communities have significantly altered how we understand cultural memory.Shared stories about an original homeland and the events that caused exile from it is central features for diasporic
While some scholars suggested that globalization embraces meaning creations for which it reflects regional differences (Held, McGrew, Goldblatt & Perraton, 1999), it brings people together via previous undreamt methods in both real and virtual worlds (Giddens, 2009). Thanks to the advancement of information technology, it enables more interactions between people all over the globe. Given that its popularity and flexibility, there are more virtual communities emerging. However, scholars highlighted that the emergence of information technology leads to discrepancies of the concept of community and lifestyle (Bellah, Madsen, Sullivan, Swidler & Tipton, 1985). The phenomenon causing a huge impact to the notion of a community due to its freedom of entrance and exit.
Globalisation and its effects on culture are very evident in our world today. Globalisation is the process whereby the world becomes increasingly interconnected as a result of the exchange of cultures and trade among countries (bbc.co.uk). When these customs are shared with other countries, the traditional customs of the people in these countries may be affected. What then, is culture? Culture is a term which refers to “the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts” (livescience.com).
Post-colonialism and post-modernism concepts in migration debates have provided very critically yet usually overlooked aspects in the literature on population movement. Post-colonial issues in migration deal with the impact of the colonial social structures which have shaped contemporary migration trends in the context of globalization. The social structures and connections during the colonial period between the former colonizers or capitalist nations and the formerly colonized or peripheral areas are retained and transferred to the post-colonial period (Massey et al, 1993). This can be contextualised to the situation of many migrants who move to the former colonizers’ regions because of being more developed and in need for better opportunities from the formerly colonized locations because of less development and lack of better opportunities, however the migrants are usually subdued, marginalized, excluded, and suffer from various disparities in their places of destination. Post-modernism perspective on migration as noted by (Boyle, Halfacree, and Robinson, 2014) entails that migration must not be viewed through one approach or a single methodology; instead the argument is that a specific approach or methodology must be chosen according to the concept or context at hand.
Migration in its broadest sense is the permanent movement of a person or persons into a new settlement—adapting to a new environment and ideologies. Transnational migration on the other hand is a settlement wherein an individual or individuals belong to more than one society simultaneously. Mere practice of a cultural belief in a host country doesn’t necessarily mean the abandonment of previous traditions from one’s homeland. Rather, a more liberal approach in embracing multicultural differences, practicing one’s old while adapting to new perspectives. Due to the pull and push factors which constantly produce immigrants globally, the importance of understanding transnational migration becomes vital.
The institution of the family has passed through the several stages of evolution and was influenced by many social and economic factors, which has resulted in appearance of its present form, namely the modern family. In a society which reserves for its citizens multiple obligations, requirements and commitments, the balance between work and personal life has become the dominant challenge. The practices which are aimed in achieving the