. Metadiscourse across Languages According to Moreno (1997), writing is a cultural-specific object. This means that writing differs from one language to another. It can be said that language and writing and cultural manifestations. Consequently, Ansary and Babii (2009) see that each language has its own rhetorical conventions that make it distinct from other languages.
Intercultural communication transpires when a person from one culture intends to deliver a message to a person from another culture. Contrastingly, intercultural miscommunication happens when the sender's intended message is not successfully delivered to the individual from the second culture. Misperception, misinterpretation, and misevaluation are often one of the main reasons that cause cross-cultural misunderstandings and complications. Therefore, studies and theories on cross-cultural communication provide a base to exploration in the field of intercultural sensitivity. As stated by Lustig & Koester (1999, pg.60.
Nadeem Aslam being himself a Diaspora writer portrays his immigrants through the representation, speech, religion and belief systems in terms of their origin. Aslam, likewise his other contemporary writers explores cultural issues like hybridity, identity crisis, social injustice and exploitations. Somehow we do find a sense of similarity in the postcolonial literature produced and interpreted by Diaspora writers like Salman Rushdie, Bapsi Sidhwa and Monica Ali. Colonialism was actually an encounter between culture, people, language and systems of thought. As part of the ‘civilizing mission’ colonial rule in Asian, African and South American region transplanted European forms of thinking through the projection of their own culture and language such as English and Spanish.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is a theory that a person’s thoughts and actions are determined by the language or languages that the individual speaks. The structure and meaning, as well as the culture of the speakers, are hypothesise to affect and shape the thoughts of the speaker. Following are quotes from the two linguists who first formulated the hypothesis and for whom it is named: “Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language and that language
First of all, translation pass from the translator 's world perspective and experiences, hance two different translations from the same book will have distinct interpretations, which involves differents readings and purposes. To translate is a crossing between two cultures, thus translators must consider not only linguistic elements but also cultural elements from the source language and the target language. Therefore, the translational act will involve the cultural background of each translator and their knowledge concerning the source language 's social and cultural
Norton mentioned that “social identity, investment and language learning drew on post structuralist theories of language and identity to offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching. In addition Block (2007a:864) notes that a post structuralist approach to identity has became the approach of choice among those who seek to explore lines between identity and language learning. The author has come up with new theories or study on identity and language learning in L2 learning. They have an assertion on Martina’s vignette by interconnecting identity and language learning researcher. The first theory is known as contemporary identity where its explainable on the second language acquisition.
When the rational meaning of the words in two languages is basically the same, they form the corresponding words. But due to the universality and particularity of the culture, a language phenomenon can only be translated into the associative meaning but can not be translated into the rational meaning in the target language. Then it is equal to be said that in the target language there is a lexical gap. The phenomenon of lexical gaps exists widely in the translation practice. There are great similarities and differences among regional cultures.
The first type of equivalence is only transferring the word in the Source language that has only one equivalent in the Target language or text. However, equivalence might problematic because it is triggered due to cultural, social and historical differences. The second type of equivalence is when one word has different meanings. For instance, the word ‘mobile’ can mean a ‘phone’, ‘movement’ or ‘flexibility’, here the Source Language or Text covers a wide range of meanings. Thus, the translator must choose the most vital meaning to maintain the spirit of the text after its translation.
The elements, exclusive to a particular culture and language come out to be non-existent in a different language, for which a translator has to take recourse in creating ‘new semantic fields’ or ‘super-ordinate’. Baker comments that, semantic fields are the division ‘imposed by a given linguistic community on the continuum of experiences’ and ‘superordinate’ refers to translation by a more general word (Baker, 1992, p.18). Many a times, the translator has to eliminate some
Tsvetelina Todorova, faculty number 25720, group 2 Cultural Realia and the Limits of Translatability As Gideon Toury states, translation inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions. Essentially, a translator’s role is to transfer the message, meaning and cultural elements along with the cultural context that is embedded in a text from one language to another. With that said, translators often encounter the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects that are implicit in a source text and how to successfully convey them when translating in the target language. Thus, special attention should be paid precisely to those cultural-specific words and expressions which carry a local, vernacular overtone. It is namely the