Applied Value Theory

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Emic research focusing on consumption and the meaning of objects in the lives of the individual has also applied value theory to explain how we organize information in our environment. McCracken (1988), for example, refers to cultural principles. That is the ideas according to which phenomena are organized, evaluated and construed. Examples of cultural principles include strength, refinement or naturalism. Cultural principles help individuals assign meaning to the world that surrounds them. People 's behaviour embodies and expresses these principles. McCracken 's (1988) cultural principles bear a strong resemblance to Rokeach 's (1968) values. Other emic researchers have also found cultural values to be at the root of certain consumer behaviour…show more content…
Marketing strategies should use cultural values in each locality to ascertain: who consumes, how it is consumed and the significance behind the consumption. The universal creation of PICOS should factor in strong cultural values in each market (Brinker 2012).
Cultural heroes have also been found to be a characteristic that influences consumer behaviours (Arnould 1989). The term heroes refers to persons, alive or dead, real or imaginary, who possess characteristics which are highly prized in a culture and, thus, serve as models for behaviour (Hofstede, 1997: 8). Heroes may influence consumer behaviour through their associations with certain products and brands, for example, Michael Jordan and Nike sports apparel. Marketing communications offer an obvious vehicle for this association.
The concept of rituals is often erroneously interpreted as behaviour of religious or mystical significance. While religious rituals are indeed an important type of ritual, Rook 's (1985:252) definition of rituals is much broader. The term ritual refers to a type of expression, the symbolic activity constructed of multiple behaviours that occur in a fixed, episodic sequence and that tend to be repeated over time. Ritual behaviour is dramatically scripted and acted out and is performed with formality, seriousness and inner
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Strategies that work at one time or in one market may fail miserably at other times or in other markets. Because product life cycles are shorter than ever before, many companies have to innovate constantly to create superior value for customers and stay profitable. This involves a creation of new products, new versions of existing products, new brands as well as new strategies for them. For example, Coca-Cola has developed more complete juices and carbonated beverages, including diet sodas like diet Coke to try to reach more consumers (Coca-Cola Company,

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