Cultural Values In Entrepreneurship

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Cultural values play an important role in the life of the woman. The values and beliefs shape behavior and, therefore, can also be assumed to influence the decision to become self-employed (Mueller and Thomas, 2000). Hofstede (2001) distinguishes between several cultural indicators, including power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term versus short-term orientation. These dimensions, including power distance, individualism and uncertainty avoidance were studied in relation to entrepreneurship (Wennekers et al., 2002). Gender differences in entrepreneurial activity are well documented in the literature (Brush, 2007). Although in recent years the number of women entrepreneurs has increased dramatically (De…show more content…
The discussions in the literature of entrepreneurship suggest that flagrant and persistent differences between men and women's entrepreneurial activity may be associated with gender characterization (Carter, Anderson, and Shaw, 2001). Specifically, the researchers argue that socially constructed and learned ideas about gender and limit the entrepreneurship of women's ability to run social, cultural, human, and capital limits and placing on financial their ability to generate personal savings have attractive credit history for vendors resources, or engaging the interest of loan officers, angel investors and venture Capitalists (Gatewood, 2005). These factors are believed to interact to influence the types of business men and women entrepreneurs start and that its further development. For example, women entrepreneurs are more likely than men to have companies (often in the service or retail sector) that are smaller, slower growing and less profitable (Carter et…show more content…
Researchers interested in the relationship between gender and career choice argue that the preferences of men and women reflect their knowledge of characteristics related to the kind associated with the task (gender stereotypes) and their identification with male or female characteristics (gender identification). In the organizational literature, the top management is regarded as a "manly business" while secretarial jobs are considered "women's work" (Heilman, 2001). These representations and evaluations of what is stereotypical "men's work and women's work" reflect and promote gender segregation in employment (Marlow & Carter, 2004). Thus, the professions dominated by members of both sexes are considered primarily male or female and success in these occupations is expected to require corresponding stereotypical characteristics. More often than not, the jobs carry with them the power, prestige and authority in a society are stereotyped as masculine (Marlow, Carter & Mirchandani 2004).
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