Consumers make purchase decisions based on a product’s symbolic meanings and images, which can be used to create and enhance self-image. According to Graeff, (1997) brands associated images let consumers express who they are, what they are, where they are and how they want to be viewed. A person expects positive reactions from his significant referents, and brand image becomes a symbolic tool for goal accomplishment (Grubb and Hupp, 1968; Grubb and Stern, 1971). A person attempts to communicate to his significant references certain things about himself by using symbolic products. Consumers’ purchase decisions are significantly influenced by social value in that consumers perceive various brand images as either congruent or incongruent with the norms of the reference groups to which they belong or aspire (Grubb and Stern, 1971; Solomon, 1983).
With this argument, it can be seen that culture strongly influences the effectiveness of advertising and consumption of brand, thus, it is important to match advertising to culture when it goes to international market, especially in the contrasting cultures such as individualistic and
One of the basic elements related to the advertising strategies is the selection of an appeal. Advertising appeals are usually divided into two types: (1) Rational appeal and (2) Emotional appeal. From the research of genders’ differences in evaluation of web advertisement, the result has shown that male may have more favourable interest or belief towards an advertisement presented in a rational way while female will prefer the emotional appeal advertisement (Hsu, et al., 2013). Hence, difference gender will generate different attitudes towards different appeal of advertisement using either central route or peripheral route to process the information. In short, the Elaboration Likelihood Model is an important theoretical framework to understand in terms of advertising because it explains how people form brand attitudes based off of advertising.
Attitude toward brand has profound and important role in affecting consumer’s purchase intentions (Gresham & Shimp, 1985; Goldsmith et al., 2000). Similarly, Batra and Ray (1986) suggest that attitude toward brand significantly affect intentions of consumers. Till and Busler (2000) investigate the source credibility (endorser) dimensions, such as expertise and likeability impact on attitude toward brand and purchase intentions of consumer and propose that both dimensions are positively associated with purchase intentions. Choi and Rifon (2002) argue that attitude toward brand and purchase intentions are positively associated with each other. Several studies in adult (Machleit & Wilson, 1988; Homer, 1990) and children samples (Phelps & Hoy, 1996) support that attitude toward brand has positive and significant effect on purchase intentions of consumers.
First part of this essay will be concentrated on the theory, of how culture is affected by the US’ influence and how it changes the PR practitioners’ approach. The second part will concentrate on the way PR practitioners have to adjust their methods of approaches to suit the culture. This would show the significance of culture within PR practices. As both local and national aspects of culture are a part of a bigger international global culture that is rapidly taking shape.
Good advertising can change the markets and improve profit margins. Companies with creative advertisements will own good future but there are also some barriers in this way. Advertisement is a tool of communication between seller and someone who needs it. Advertisement can be improved with new techniques and processes. The way in which information is provided affects the way consumer interprets that information.
Papadopoulos (1993) considers COO effects as the process of how the origin of imported products would affect consumers’ perceptions of a product and their evaluation of its attributes. Chinen et al. (2000) indicate that the COO effect is the information that consumers rely on to evaluate the quality of products from various countries and decide whether to purchases products or not. In this manner, COO has an impact on purchase intensions and buying behaviors of consumers. Wang and Lamb (1983) define COO effects as intangible barriers for entering new foreign markets in the form of negative consumer biases toward imported
Introduction Cultural differences has been one of the research interests of psychologists since culture shape how we perceive the outside word. Culture does influence process of perception and attention. During the process of perception, people from western culture tend to be context-independent while people from eastern culture tend to be context-dependent. These cultural differences can be attributed to different social practices (Nisbett, & Miyamoto, 2005). Some scholars also proposed that cultural differences influence formation of individualism and collectivism, which further influence many factors, including cognitive style (Oyserman, & Lee, 2008).
Persuasion is the “attitude change resulting from exposure to information from others.” Persuasion aims to changing attitudes. Some actions are influenced from attitudes as attitudes are the concept of liking or disliking different things. Our behaviors are also influenced from our attitudes because if you have a positive attitude toward something our behavior will be positive and the opposite is true. Also our beliefs are influenced by attitudes. Three components are believed to be found in attitudes; Affective component, cognitive and behavioral.
Hofstede’s book has been used to examine cross-cultural differences in actual consumption behaviour and product use and is also useful in predicting consumer behaviour or effectiveness of marketing strategies for various cultures (De Mooij and Hofstede, 2010). De Mooij and Hofstede further note that culture and the individualism/collectivism perhaps best reflects cultural differences in behaviour research studies, especially in the studies conducted between Western and Asian cultures. Western (American) culture is generally seen as individualistic, meaning the emphasis is on the betterment of the individual, while Asian, Latin American and Middle Eastern cultures are generally seen as collectivistic where the emphasis is on the betterment of the group. This individualism vs collectivism model is very useful if applied to retail design as it highlights the effect cultural elements have on consumer