In his book The Little Book of Restorative Justice, Zehr Howard (2002), illustrates that the central focus of retributive justice is offenders getting what they deserve (p. 30). This reflection paper will first address the advantages of using retributive justice approach in three court-cases. Second, it will discuss the disadvantages of using retributive justice approaches by analyzing the three court-cases listed above. Third, it will elaborate on ways that the system could have used restorative justice processes in the cases, as well as present potential outcomes that could have been reached if restoration justice was taken into consideration. First, during lecture three, we talked about the notion of just deserts.
The second chapter, entitled “Operational Definitions and Theoretical Framework” offers a short literature review with working definitions of the critical term used in the paper (e.g. masochism, Bildungsroman elements) and relevant short discussion of the theories the paper cashes in on ,namely post-modernism and Marxism. The third chapter titled “Water as Orgone energy” offers a critical reading of the novel concentrating on three major characters Tommy Wilhelm, Dr. Adler and Dr.Tamkin. The fourth chapter, “Water imagery as Reckoning, Reconciliation, and Redemption’’ assuming a Psychoanalytical perspective. The fourth chapter contends water imagery as drowning in materialism of American society.
Anyway, this research will focus only on three aspects - conscience crisis, violence, and fate and destiny. These aspects will be discussed in three separate chapters under the umbrella of the selected novels of John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men(1937) , The Grapes of Wrath(1939) , and The Pearl (1947) and Cormac McCarthy ’s Blood Meridian (1985) , No country for old men( 2005) , and The Road (2006) . The investigator has adopted the sociological methodology throughout the thesis. Furthermore , the second chapter - conscience crisis, will be divided into two parts ( man’s inhumanity to man and greed ). “The phrase (Man 's inhumanity to man) is first documented in the Robert Burns poem called Man Was Made to Mourn, Samuel Von Pufendorf also wrote in 1673, More inhumanity has been done by man himself than any other of nature 's causes.” (http://goo.gl/JXV9Jw) Man 's inhumanity towards man can be caused by need of power, jealousy, and greed.
In three distinct stories that root from our MAS (Modern American Society) we learn about one key difference that brought the demise of these dystopian societies. In Fahrenheit we explored the values of the books compared to our MAS, we also explored the difference between the definition of handicaps in the short dystopian tale called, “Harrison Bergeron”. Finally, we touched upon the meaning of equality and totalitarianism in the beloved tale Animal Farm. There are many differences in the dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451 and our MAS (modern american society). On one topic you have the books in Fahrenheit 451, on the other you have the ones in MAS, these are key factor in both, but the similarities are few.
The researchers used Fredric Jameson’s cultural philosophical analysis as the framework of this study. The concepts of pastiche and cultural logic of late capitalism were utilized to evaluate the authenticity and reproducibility of the artifacts, identify the communication characteristics of the artifacts, determine how do the artifacts communicate the culture of the Cordilleras, and evaluate the consumption patterns in terms of authenticity, reproduction, utility, and deception. Pastiche Neo-Marxist theorist Fredric Jameson, who is known for his analysis on the cultural trends in the contemporary society introduced the idea of pastiche. It was the scheme of ‘parody’ that constitute Jameson’s concept of pastiche. In his work about the Postmodernism and Consumer Society, Jameson defined pastiche as analogous to a parody (Jameson 1982, 2).
Reading chapter 3, Sonja Foss, outlines four weaknesses of the neo-Aristotelian method of rhetorical criticism. She writes that this method assumes that the primary role of a rhetorical critic is that of a teacher or practitioner, this method overemphasizes the importance of the immediate, short-term effects of the selected artifact, this method overemphasizes the importance of rational appeals, and this method encourages an overly mechanical approach to criticism, in which critical concepts are applied indiscriminately to all rhetorical artifacts in cookie-cutter fashion. From analyzing Forbes Hill’s essay “Conventional Wisdom—Traditional Form: The President’s Message of November 3, 1969,” which neo-aristotelian Criticism can be found here. The first weaknesses of the neo-Aristotelian method of rhetorical criticism is that the method assumes that the primary role of a rhetorical critic is a teacher or practitioner. In his essay, Hills explains how Nixon evokes the intended response from the immediate audience by gaining support for the war.
In the article Naturalism’s Histories written by Jeffory A. Clymer, Clymer will not only criticize, but will also explain naturalism. First he starts off by giving a few examples of scholars criticizing books. He then stated that because of naturalist writers, people are forced to rethink customs. Clymer criticizes three books in his article, The Vast and Terrible Drama written by Eric Carl Link, The Problem of American Realism by Michael Davitt Bell, and John Dudley’s book A Man’s Game. In The Vast and Terrible Drama Links goal was to write on “literary naturalism as an aesthetic movement-an art form, a way of writing (185).
Outline Research Question/Topic: What is the effect of alienation and isolation in the works of George Orwell 's 1984 and Margaret Atwood 's the Handmaid 's Tale? Introduction: Isolation refers “a person or place to be or remain alone or apart from others”, and through the literary classics The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood and 1984 by George Orwell, the theme of isolation plays a key factor in molding the plot into the controversial novels that they are today. Paragraph 1 (1984) Explain the role of isolation and alienation in the novel from the direct setting Quote: “Behind Winston’s back the voice from the telescreen was still babbling away about pig iron and the over fulfillment of the Ninth Three-Year Plan. The telescreen received and transmitted simultaneously. Any sound that Winston
Cultural relativism has a variety of definitions, but the main idea is that a universal code of ethics does not exist--it varies culture to culture. Rachel’s examines cultural relativism in “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” and argues that there are commonalities of ethics throughout every culture. Rachels sections off his argument to better explain what they believe. In this piece, they argue that cultural relativism is not a proper theory. They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it.
Barry Lewis states that “The postmodernist writer distrusts the wholeness and completion associated with traditional stories, and prefers to deal with other ways of structuring narrative.” (Stuart Sim (ed.) 2001: 127). In this essay, I shall attempt to show how the ‘wholeness and completion’ of the conventional Victorian novel is disrupted over the narrative of Fowles’s The French Lieutenant’s Woman by drawing a number of examples out of the numerous that can be traced in the novel. The first distinct element that the reader notices in the narrative is the use of quotation references preceding the beginning of each chapter. The use of these epigraphs reinforces the Victorian ‘feeling’ of the story, and certainly, it also aims to recreate the Victorian context in relation to the current perspective.