We will use studies done by scientists to give us valid information to explain the results. Then, in a second stage, we will study the effect of hypohydration on the human body itself, that is to say that we will see the link between cramps and hypohydration, we will also see tendinitis and More precisely what happens in the cartilage and joints. Finally we will see at the enzymatic level before tackling the regulation of water in the human
Some lymphocytes selected during the adaptive immune response provides long term immunological memory to prevent later infection from the same pathogen, consequently eliciting a stronger and faster response. The adaptive immune response includes lymphocytes that go through clonal selection and expansion. This is because only cells with receptors for the specific pathogen that causes infection will be selected to play a role in the adaptive immune response. While dendritic cells focus on activating naive T-cells, macrophages are responsible for removing pathogen and their breakdown products from the afferent lymph that arrives from the site of infection. The macrophage-mediated lymph filtration is as critical as it efficient because it prevents infectious
Lab tests when on furosemide can increase blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum amylase, cholesterol, triglycerides and serum electrolytes. Herbal and food can be effect furosemide. Ginseng which is found in many products may decrease the effect of furosemide. The patient needs to be educated about this, and to read the label. Frusemide is used to treat, the same condition as pediatric, cardiac pulmonary and kidney disease.
Though I will be experimenting on cow liver cells for ethical reasons and because both are animal cells. Experimenting on cow liver cells, I can assume that the results would be similar if done on human liver cells. To learn how dangerous Monosodium glutamate can be to our body, I plan to use this experiment to see the effects of Monosodium glutamate on cow liver cells, and reflect how it may also affect human liver cells. III. Hypothesis When there is a gradient of high water concentration to low water concentration, the water molecules will move faster, and when there is a gradient of low water concentration to high water concentration, the water molecules will move slower, therefore, the rate of osmosis will be faster the water concentration is from high gradient to low gradient.
Introduction “In this experiment, the scientific method will be used to answer a specific question. After the question has been posted, the next step is to develop a scientific hypothesis (Stroud 3).” The question that this experiment address is whether or not hand sanitizer will actually kill the bacteria, Staphylococcus epidernidis. The objective was to determine if hand sanitizers inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis and to see if it is effective. Materials & Methods “The experimental design should consist of two groups: The control group and the experimental group (Stroud 4).” The experimental group contain a disk with hand sanitizer while the control will just contain a blank disk. To begin the experiment, students obtained a Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA) plate, and labeled the bottom of the TSA plate
An enzyme biologically defined is a catalyst produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reactions without changing the chemical reaction at the end of the reaction.1 There are several factors that affect the rate an enzyme speeds up reactions; temperature, pH, substrate concentration and enzyme concentration.2 However, when there is too much or not enough of these factors (depending on the enzyme) it can destroy the enzyme entirely. In this experiment we tested how temperature affects enzymes. We observed the enzyme activity for the enzyme Alkaline phosphatase when it was put in an environment of 33°C and 86°C. Because Alkaline phosphatase has the ability to extract phosphate groups from substrates, once the Alkaline phosphatase was in the specifically heated environment for five minutes, we measured it’s activity by inserting para-nitrophenyphosphate. Para-nitrophenyphosphate is a substrate that goes from being colorless to being the color yellow when it’s phosphate group is removed.
This could have occurred from miscounting or not accurately counting the number of seeds germinated. If the experiment was completed again, more higher concentrations could be applied to the seeds to see if the data is further supported. Either way the more trials the better and more accurate results, this applies to any experiment. Practical applications of the principles of this investigation may be using the correct concentration for a specific plant or seed. This lab shows that it is necessary to follow the directions and specifications when using the fertilizer miracle
The more concentration of the enzyme, the more browning appears. Catechol oxidase is found in cell cytoplasm, their function in plants are to "help protect damaged plants bacterial and fungal disease." The objective of this experiment is to test the presences of catechol oxidase in various fruits and vegetables. Our group hypothesis states that, If catechol oxidase is present in the selected extracts, the null hypothesis is that catechol oxidase is not present in the selected extracts. Next, the prediction would be, if catechol oxidase doesn't differ with other enzyme sources, then the rates will
The importance of the experiment is to determine the effects temperature has on beet cell membranes, and to understand why certain cells are best suited for certain environments or in this case certain temperatures. Cell membranes play a vital role in selectively allowing substances such as proteins, nutrients, and other chemicals into and out of the cell. The cell membrane is also a line of defense against harmful chemicals and other agents that try to enter the cell. We hypothesize that increasing the temperature will increase the fluidity of the membrane thus making it less permeable. When the temperature of the cell increases it will cause the phospholipids that make up the plasma membrane to move apart from one another and become more
Executive Summary Jar tests were performed to consider the most effective conditions for maximum precipitation from synthetic wastewater. The samples were used to simulate industrial wastewater containing copper. Increasing dosages of NaOH were added to the samples in order to raise the pH level and cause precipitate formation. Copper concentration levels of 30, 3.45, 1.32, 0.98, 0.45, and 0.22 mg/L were observed when given 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mL 1 M NaOH dosages, respectively. It was observed that, as the pH of the solution increased, the amount of precipitate formed also increased.
This test was conducted for the purpose of selective and differential whether or not my organism can tolerate high salt concentrations. It is based on the mannitol fermentation. The phenol-red indicator helps to identify the bacteria. Upon viewing my results it was determined that my colonies did not ferment mannitol. This was easily observed because they remained translucent.
Purpose and Techniques: This experiment has the aim to determine a chemical formula of hydrated compound, which ingrains cupper, chloride and water molecules in its structure. In order to find this hydrated compound, it is necessary to use the law of multiple proportions. In other word, finding the appropriate variables values to this compound (CxCly*zH2O). Additionally, two major steps are required to proceed the experiment. The first consists to heat a sample to liberate the water hydration, and then compare two mass weights before and after heating so gets easier to find the water percentage (mass).
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.
Mannitol high salt testing is done in order to determine if the bacteria is salt tolerant and can ferment mannitol. Catalase activity test establishes whether the bacterium produces the enzyme catalase. The eosin methylene blue test or EMB, inhibits the growth of gram positive bacteria and tests whether or not gram negative bacteria can ferment lactose. Lactose fermentation testing is done to see if the bacterium is capable of fermenting sugar by testing for acid and gas production. These are the possible tests that are needed in order to identify unknown