Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR OUTCOMES-BASED ASSESSMENT An educator should use different assessment styles and methods. Assessment should provide learners with many opportunities to show their abilities in the specific knowledge and skills they have learnt. The methods and styles of the assessment must be appropriate to the outcomes being tested. Assessment should focus on the abilities of specific skills and knowledge that need to be tested. If assessment is to be reliable it has to be planned, on-going and incorporated into teaching.
The answer to the question how to evaluate heavily depends on what should be evaluated. Teachers must ensure that teaching, learning, assignments, assessment and feedback are constructively aligned, and demonstrate the evidence of student’s achievement of the intended learning outcomes. Figure 1 shows how learning outcomes, evidence of achievement, assessment criteria and feedback linked with each other. Hence, based on how well learning outcomes have been achieved by a learner, assessment along with the feedback should be given to a student. In the following paragraphs we will discuss various formats and types of assessments.
In the academic handshake, we enter into a cathedral of consciousness which brings forth a system of education where Experiential Learning plays a vital role. Experiential learning or “learning by doing,” is an essential constituent of the teaching methodology of present schools. It consists of structuring lessons so students can do work for themselves – and through meaningful experiences – commit information to memory. It is such a method of education which is based on self-directed activity, hands on learning and collaborative play. Experiential Learning plays an impeccable role keeping knowledge and conceptual learning in mind.
Introduction A theory of learning by J.Novack, “Meaningful learning underline the constructive integration of thinking, feeling, and acting leading to empowerment for commitment and responsibility.” This showed that meaningful learning is the key concept of the education, which students and teachers had to negotiate and integrate to know and fully understand the knowledge or fact. J.Novack, (2010), had also claimed that the central purpose of education is to empower learners to take a change of their own meaning making. Therefore, teaching and learning process has to take place to inspire, motivate, and suit the learners to construct their own cognitive to learn and make learning meaningful. This can only happen if the learners can relate new information to ideas the learners already knows. The learner became better or different from the others was based on the concept attainment of the new material and the quality and the quantity of the relevant knowledge that learners gained as meaningful learning.
The use of pedagogical techniques to produce learning outcomes for students is the form of producing quality in teaching and learning. It involves several dimensions, including the effective design of content mastery, a variety of learning contexts (including guided independent study and collaborative learning, experimentation, etc. ), using feedback, and effective assessment of learning outcomes. It also involves well-adapted learning equipment and student support services. Support for quality teaching takes place at three related levels: At the institution-wide level: including projects such as strategy design, and support to organization and internal quality systems.
Curriculum as a process. The process approach aims at fostering engagement, and interaction between, the educational poles being students, teacher, and knowledge. Its main principles are “judgment and meaning making” (Smith, 2000, p. 9). 184.108.40.206. Curriculum as praxis.
These tasks are built by the teachers to develop the learner’s zones of proximal development. (K-12 Teaching and Learning from the UNC School of Education) Experiential Learning. Experiential learning theories situate experience at the core of the learning process. They aim to understand the manners in which experiences motivate learners and promote their learning. Experiential learning posits that learning is about meaningful experiences that lead to a change in an individual’s knowledge and behaviors.
Overview and Justification of Learning Resource The learning resource as required for the Day 2 instructional module was identified in Assignment 1. These supporting resources serve as an important means for the transfer of knowledge and skill to the learner and they include: (a) Supporting resources such as projector, classroom facility; and (b) Instructional material such as facilitator’s guide, participant’s guide, ISO standards, audit checklist and templates and presentation slides. The entire list of learning resources needed to support the instructional module is described in Appendix 2: Representation of Learning Resource and it includes the justification of the resources needed with reference to the Gagne’s (1985) nine events of
It helps in defining the resources in terms of specific functions, the solution they proffer, proper handling and maintenance. 10. Provides feedback: there is appropriate feedback from educational technology to the teacher and student in bringing improvement at the preparatory and at implementation stage of specific acts. For this purpose, educational technology discusses the ways and means of suitable evaluation techniques, their planning, development selection and appropriate use in relation to the objectives of teaching- learning system. In conclusion, the scope should not be restricted to these alone but there should be room for necessary expansion and development for carrying out its tasks and objectives.