Workplace Bullying Research Paper

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Workplace Bullying
Workplace bullying happens when an individual recognizes negative actions directed at him or her from one or more persons, ongoing over at least 6 months, and when he/she has trouble defending these actions (Simons et al., 2011, p. 133). Workplace bullying has been theoretically linked with harassment and includes features of frequent and determined efforts to torment, irritate, or create anxiety for an individual at work (Brodsky, 1976). Workplace bullying has become a disturbing but interesting phenomenon that has fascinated a high level of consideration from scholars and practitioners in the academic and organizational surroundings (Rayner and Cooper, 1997). Basically, the incidence of workplace bullying has led study
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Preceding meta-analytic evidence suggests that age is negatively linked with preventable absenteeism (Hackett, 1990) or both occurrence of absenteeism and work hours lost, often used as procedures of intended and unintentional absenteeism (Martocchio, 1989). Ng and Feldman (2008) distinguished three types of absenteeism in their meta-analysis. Age was negatively (20.26) related to objective methods of overall levels of absence, regardless of the reasons. Age was negatively linked (20.10) to objective methods of non-sickness-related absenteeism, and a weak positive relationship was verified between objective methods of sickness absenteeism and age (0.02). The common contrary relationship between age and absenteeism can be described by the person-environment fit perception, which suggests that people select environments well-suited with their behavioral tendencies (Schneider, 1983). A weak fitting between an individual’s and an organization’s values, goals and qualities results in the individual’s reluctance to maintain his or her current work position (Hoffman and Woehr, 2006; Verquer et al., 2003). Therefore, as employees’ age, they are expected to pull out from unsatisfactory work conditions because they realize that these environments are weak fitting. There is overpowering evidence that older employees are usually more satisfied with their work and more committed to their social environments (Rhodes, 1983). In the study, we used two methods of illness absence: short (1-3 days), non-certified illness absences and long (.3 days), medically certified illness absences. Evidence suggests that these two methods represent different causes of absence. Certified absences reflect actual illness, such as psychiatric illnesses and injuries, while non-certified absences reflect
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