3.3.4 Preparation of CaCl2 solution The molecular weight of CaCl2 was 111 g/mole. Weighed 11.1g CaCl2 and dissolved into 100ml distilled water. The final CaCl2 concentration would be 1M. CaCl2 solution was used to make bottom agar and initiate the infection cycle. 3.4 Selection of most sensitive strain to bacteriophages to make new stock culture Starting culture was prepared by inoculating 1ml (1×109 CFU/ml) stock Lactococcus lactis ssp.
The Bile Esculin agar test has its medium as selective and differential. Black medium shows a positive result for esculin hydrolysis. In the agar, Gram-positive cannot grow in the presence of bile while certain Gram-negative bacteria can hydrolyze esculin with bile present. MR-VP broth contains glucose and peptone. The enteric bacteria will oxidize glucose for ATP, but there are different fermentative pathways that allow glucose to be fermented.
Remove excess water from the surface of the gram stained glass slide and observed under 1000X oil immersion microscope. Gram-staining have performed for Staphylococcus aureus (control); Enterococcus faecalis (control); Nostril microflora in NA, MSA, and PYCa. Gram-staining provides results of the bacteria morphology, type of gram-stain. Catalase test was also done prior to gram-staining. MicrobactTM Biochemical Identification Kit was used for identifying gram-negative aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.
A amylase or B amylase are the enzymes of importance for bakers with A amylase being for dextrinising and B for saccharifying. A amylase splits starch molecules which produces dextrins of various molecular sizes. B amylase acts on the end of the starch molecule which releases maltose. B amylase cannot attack the starch molecules at the points it is branched. When A amlyase and B amylase work together they create a much better greater conversion into fermentable sugars ( glucose and maltose) rather than each amylase working alone.
(see table #2) The mixture with the bean water caused the solution to not be as concentrated, limiting the amount of oligosaccharides that the alpha galactosidase can break down, therefore resulting in a small amount of glucose concentration. The highest stand standard deviation is at 4 mL of alpha galactosidase, which is 185.742. The lowest standard deviation is at 0 mL and 1 mL of alpha galactosidase, which is 0. Since error bars are not all overlapping, it shows that there was a significant difference (see figure #3). However, the R squared value is 0.929, meaning that it is close to fitting the line of best fit.
ABSTRACT NRC-04, a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from skin mucous secretions of flat fish winter flounder, shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In order to understand the conformational change of NRC-04 in different types of membrane, our team did experiments on NRC-04 with negatively charged bacterial surface membrane mimetic micelles sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS), zwitterionic eukaryotic middle membrane mimetic micelles dodecylphosphocholine(DPC), gram-negative bacteria outer membrane mimetic micelles Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and bacterial inner membrane mimetic micelles 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol(POPG). Fluorescence test shows that the C-terminus tryptophan residue of NRC-04 interacts with the hydrophobic
Xanthan gum is a plant based bacterial polysaccharide used as thickening or stabilizing agent in food industry and rheology modifier. Xanthan gum derives its name from the strain of bacteria used during the production process, Xanthomonas campestris. It is produced by a process involving fermentation of glucose, sucrose or lactose by the Xanthomonas campestris bacterium. The result is a gel-like substance that is then purified, dried and milled to create the powder substance sold as xanthan gum. Xanthan gum is used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in variety of foods, personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medicine and some other industrial applications.
All microorganism cultures were prepared from their respective slants. Cultures were grown over 24 hour at 37 °C and optical density was adjusted to 0.1, which corresponds to 108 CFU (colony forming unit)/ ml at 600 nm. About 100 µL bacteria were added to 100 ml of a nutrient broth solution to give bacteria concentration about 108 CFU/ ml. 4.2 Well diffusion method This method was employed to essay antimicrobial activity of pure PS nanofiber and Ag nano particle doped PS composite nanofibers. The bacterial suspension (100 µL 108 CFU) was spread uniformly on the nutrient agar plate and 50 µL solution of each of PS and Ag/ PS prepared in DMSO was loaded in each well on nutrient agar plate The plate was then put in incubator for 24 hour at 37 °C to record inhibition zone .
The first method is broth culture. In broth culture, Escherichia coli are grown in a liquid medium. It is shown that the nutrient broth appeared to have sediment. This shows that Escherichia coli carries out anaerobic and aerobic respiration as it can survive anywhere in the broth. The second method is agar slope culture where Escherichia coli are grown on a slant agar in a test tube.
This is because when catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide, water and oxygen is formed (Mhamdi, Queval, Chaouch, Vanderauwera, Breusegem & Noctor 2010). Hence, as the concentration is not high, there will be less hydrogen peroxide for the catalase to catalyse, hence less oxygen will be produced and thus the leaf in the lowest hydrogen peroxide concentration solution will take the longest time to rise. Therefore, it was predicted that the leaf that would take the longest time to rise to the surface was the leaf in the 1% hydrogen peroxide concentration solution, and the leaf that would take the shortest time to rise would be the leaf in the 5% hydrogen peroxide