The substitution reaction was successful but not fully effective. 19. If the data was inconclusive, then comparing various compounds and the unknown based on physical characteristics would be the first step, titrations would also be a good method. 20. To get a better yield, redoing the experiment would require careful attention in the recrystallization steps: amount of solvent used, how hot solvent is, if the mixture cools to room temperature before placing it in an ice
Distillation Distillation is used to remove impurities from a mixture – one component of which must be a liquid. Boiling points are utilized in determining the identity of the unknowns. Types of distillation include
Separation of Liquids by Fractional Distillation and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Methods and Background This lab was exceptionally knowledgeable and important in order to understand how certain compounds can be separated based on their boiling points (Landrie, 43). This experiment in particular focuses on understanding the separation of 1:1 mixture of acetone and 1 propanol using the method of fractional distillation (Landrie, 43). In the previous experiment, we focused on understanding the same separation but in terms of simple distillation. If compared with the data shown below with the data in the previous experiment, overall, the fractional distillation showed better and more effective results (Landrie, 43). This experiment also provided better
Like measuring off by a slight amount or leaving behind some of the substance if transferring it over to another flask or beaker. A person could not do something so perfectly because humans always do errors while doing things, it would be very unlikely for a chemists to get a 100% yield after for a chemical reaction. 6. The percentage yield was not 100%. Some factors that could have affected the experiments end result could have been through measuring the all the reactants and equipment their might have been an error somewhere there.
The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate.
The results in this were expected. In this lab, human error could have possibly been that the salt wasn’t fully dissolved or even the Kool-Aid wasn’t fully dissolved. To fix this next time, both mixtures can be stirred a little longer. A third human error could have been when putting 20 drops into the test tubes, some drops were bigger than others causing there to be more than mL of mixture in the test tube. At the end of the lab, a red and yellow M&M were used to do a home material test.
Resistance happens when a drug is no longer effective in controlling a medical condition. Resistance arises for many reasons, for example the effectiveness of barbiturates (used to cure mild seizures and sleep disorders) often decreases when used repeatedly because taking it repeatedly causes the body to increase its production in the liver of mixed function oxidases that metabolise the drug, therefore reducing the drug’s effectiveness. An increase in the rate of production of an enzyme that metabolises the drug is a common reason for drug resistance. Another reason for drug resistance is the down-regulation of receptors (decrease in the number of receptors). Down-regulation happens when the receptors are stimulated repeatedly which causes the receptor to be broken down.
Excess or lesser amounts of 1.00 M NaOH can lead to inappropriate standardization. Consequently, an incorrect standard solution prepared yielded to the wrong number of moles of NaOH which consequently give us wrong data. Another issue arose with the amount of the indicator used. Since drops are the measurement associated with the amount of phenolphthalein, it is quite difficult to obtain an accurate amount. A slight error in the indicator can shift the endpoint and consequently affects the volume of the obtained NaOH.
If you conduct the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a closed vessel, you will be able to determine the reaction rate as a function of the pressure increase in the vessel that is caused by the production of oxygen gas. If you vary the initial molar concentration of the H2O2 solution, the rate law for the reaction can also be determined. Finally, by conducting the reaction at different temperatures, the activation energy, Ea, can be calculated as heat is the energy source. Catalase is very efficient at decomposing hydrogen peroxide; one molecule of the enzyme can catalyse the conversion of over 6000,000 hydrogen peroxide molecules into water and oxygen every second. The enzyme occurs widely in tissues such as the liver and prevents accumulation of, and tissue damage by, hydrogen peroxide that is produced during metabolism.
The product (Cu(OH)2) was unstable and could reform Cu2+ and OH- ions due to its high solubility. This result can cause difficulties on separating Cu from the other metals in the AMD. Therefore, additional treatment, such as sulfidization, is required to prevent the occurrence of the reformation process