In order to calculate for the molar mass the temperature, volume, mass, and pressure was measured. The ideal gas law equation was derived in order to express the relationship between the molar mass, mass of the condensate, temperature, pressure, and volume. A 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask was added with an unknown liquid, was capped with an aluminum foil with a tiny hole and was heated in boiling water in a beaker until the liquid in the flask is vaporized. The flask was cooled until condensate is observed. After cooling, the flask was weighed in an analytical balance.
Indeed, the mass conservation law for the vapor phase accounts for the delayed liquid–vapor transition by a relaxation toward thermodynamic equilibrium. In other words, a very high value of the relaxation time (O(θ)≈1) corresponds to a very small inter-phase mass transfer and the model behaves as the frozen model. However, in the case of very low values of the relaxation times (O(θ)≈〖10〗^(-3)), the time required to achieve equilibrium becomes very low and the model approaches the equilibrium model. The relaxation time can be obtained from the correlations for relaxation time as suggested by Downar–Zapolski et al.  which gives a separate correlation for high pressure and low pressure flow.
3.1 ABSTRACT The intermolecular interactions in the N-methylformamide with acetophenone, cyclic ketones (cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone) binary liquid systems are studied in combined experimental and computational methodology. The speed of sound (u), density (ρ) and viscosity ( ) values are measured for binary mixtures of N-methylformamide with ketones over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures T= (303.15 to 318.15) K, at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental results, the values of excess molar volume ( ), excess isentropic compressibility (κsE), deviation in viscosity (η) and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow ( ) are evaluated. The experimental results indicate the intermolecular association between the binary liquid
We can now rearrange the equation in order to make it easier to calculate only n. 3. After rearrangement the formula should look like this: n(SO2) = pV/RT 4. Now we just put in all of the known values for pressure, temperature, volume, and the gas constant and calculate the molar mass of SO2. Picture 1: Diagram of
Use these results to determine the product concentration, using Beer-Lambert’s Law: A= ɛCl (where A is the absorbance, ɛ is the molar absorptivity, C is the product concentration and l is the length of solution that the light passes through). Calculate the product concentrations at every minute for 10 minutes for all 7 of the test tubes using Beer-Lambert’s Law. Plot a graph of product concentration vs. time and then use the gradients of the 7 test tubes to determine the velocities of the reaction. After calculating the velocities, plot a Michaelis-Menten graph of velocity vs. substrate concentration. Predict/ roughly determine the Vmax and ½ Vmax values from the peak of the graph, where the slope of the graph levels off (the asymptotical line).
The Equation of state is usually expressed as: P = ρ*R*T (7) where P is the pressure, R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature and ρ is the density. The equation (7) can be changed as, P = c *R*T (8) where c is the concentration and the equation is similar to Van’t Hoffs equation for osmotic pressure. 3.1.2 Approximation: Flow is considered as three-dimensional, incompressible and laminar flow assuming multiphase mixture model and all other physical properties are assumed to remain constant. 3.1.3 Multiphase Mixture
5.1.2 Activation Overpotential The Tafel equations can be used to determine the activations overpotential at the anode and the cathode because the values of the exchange current densities are quite low. At the anode, V_(act,Anode)=(RT_FC)/(α_A nF) ln(i/i_0 ) At the cathode, V_(act,Cathode)=(RT_FC)/(α_C nF) ln(i/i_0 ) (12) where, i is current density (A/cm2), i0 is exchange current density (A/cm2), R is universal gas constant (8.314 J/mole-K), n is number of electrons involved and, F is Faraday's constant (96485 C/mole). Exchange current density: It may be determined in two different forms based on the cell operating temperature and pressure. In electrochemical reactions i0 is similar to the rate constant in the chemical reactions and it is a function of temperature Based on temperature; i_0 (T)=1.08×〖10〗^(-21)×exp(0.086T_FC ) In this study i0 at 353 K and 5 atm, is assumed to be 4.4 × 10-7 A/cm2 as a reference
3.1 Flory-Huggins Theory – Prediction of concentration profiles and to explain the sorption selectivity of membranes and real fluid mixtures is done by this method. Activity of the species in the polymer is a function of the volume fraction of the species, the molar volumes of the components and the Florry-Huggins interaction parameters. Originally, this method was developed for the binary mixtures, further it was extended to ternary systems with non- crosslinked polymer membranes. Flory- Huggins thermodynamics equation is represented as follows (13): Where x and are the mole fraction and volume fractions respectively and X’s are the adjustable parameters. The binary Flory-Huggins interaction parameter Xi,j describes the interaction between two liquid solvents can be expressed as