The goal of experiment four was to use sodium dichromate to oxidize borneol to camphor. To purify the camphor use sublimation, then reduce camphor to isomeric alcohol isoborneol with sodium borohydride. Use the 1H NMR to determine the ratio of borneol to isoborneol in the final product. The experiment was carried out by using sodium dichromate to oxidize a borneol solution that was made with borneol and ethyl acetate. Once the reaction was complete the mixture was transferred into a separatory funnel where the ether and aqueous layers were separated and the aqueous layer was then extracted with two portions of ether. All ether layers were combined and extracted once again with 10% sodium bicarbonate and water. Once the ether layer was
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution. Glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride were added to the mixture while refluxing, which converted the lime colored solution into a clear mixture. The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the solution
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
The purpose of this lab experiment is to examine different types of chemical reactions such as Decomposition reaction, Synthesis reactions, Combustion reactions, and different Chemical equations. The experiments were conducted online using Late Nite Labs.
Bromination is a type of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction where one hydrogen atom of benzene or benzene derivative is replaced by bromine due to an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring.
Four types of reactions will be performed in this experiment: precipitation reactions, redox reactions, decomposition reactions, and acid base
Dehydration is a common reaction in Organic Chemistry used to produce carbon-carbon double bonds. The dehydration mechanism involves the removal of water from an alcohol to form an alkene. In this experiment, 2-methylcyclohexanol will undergo acid catalyzed dehydration in heat to form three products: 1-methylcyclohexene, 3-methylcyclohexene, and methylenecyclohexane . The reaction is carried out in a Hickman still filled with Drierite, a drying agent composed of CaSO4 which absorbs water. The product is transferred from the ring of the Hickman still into a pre-weighed vial for analysis. The percent yield of the recovered product is calculated, and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to analyze the purity and percent composition of different alkene products.
Therefore, liquid-liquid and acid-base extraction techniques were successfully performed to separate the components of the Excedrin tablet. According to the TLC analysis results, the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were successfully isolated from the analgesic (Excedrin tablet). In figure 1, the separation of the compound in the TLC analysis correlates with the TLC analysis in figure 2. Furthermore, Rf index calculations of the TLC analysis demonstrated that the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were separated. The Rf calculations of aspirin in table 1 shows an Rf value of .491; however, in table 2 the Rf value of aspirin was calculated to be .784. This Rf value is the higher among the other compounds because the Rf values decreases from aspirin to caffeine; therefore, this suggests that the
A Sn2 reaction was conducted; this involved benzyl bromide, sodium hydroxide, an unknown compound and ethanol through reflux technique, mel-temp recordings, recrystallization, and analysis of TLC plates.
Chevron Phillips Chemical Company is the major producer of Cyclohexane. This successful company hoses the three largest cyclohexane plants in the world. Many are puzzled by how the production of cyclohexane seems to have become stagnant. Perhaps this is due to the cost of benzene increasing or the demand increasing. Through thorough investigation, the answer to this question and many more can be answered. There are two methods of obtaining cyclohexane. These two methods are fractional distillation of naphtha and hydrogenation of benzene. Research suggest that the hydrogenation of benzene is the most economical way to create our chemical of choice. According to ICIS, cyclohexane is used in the production of adipic acid used to
There are several factors which affect the rate of reaction: catalyst, reactant concentration, and temperature.1,2
Strong acids and strong acids both dissociate completely in water forming ions. However, strong acids donate a proton to form H3O+ along with a conjugate base and strong bases accept a proton to form OH- along with a conjugate acid. The chemical behavior of acids and bases are opposite. When they are together, their ions cancel out and form a neutral solution. In this experiment, HCl and NaOH will react to form NaOH and H2O with these two steps:
Two sources of error may have affected the experiment. Firstly, the experiment required volumes of liquid to be recorded while the vapours were distilling. It was impossible to accurately measure the volume of liquid at any given moment, as the meniscus was moving side to side. Secondly, the distillation was ended while there was still liquid in to round bottom flask. The composition and volume of this liquid were unaccounted for in the calculated
During this experiment, the mass of copper was weighed in grams. It was measured with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, zinc, hydrochloric acid, methanol, and acetone. The main instruments used in this experiment was a balance, beaker, stirring rod, evaporating dish, wire gauze, ring stand, graduated cylinder, copper wire, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, water, sodium hydroxide, zinc, sulfuric acid, and a hot plate. By finding the raw data, the percent recovered was able to be calculated.
In the round-bottom flask (100 mL), we placed p-aminobenzoic acid (1.2 g) and ethanol (12 mL). We swirled the mixture until the solid dissolved completely. We used Pasteur pipet to add concentrated sulfuric acid (1.0 mL) to the flask. We added boiling stone and assembled the reflux. Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8. After neutralize, we collected benzocaine by vacuum filtration. We used a Buchner funnel to collect benzocaine. We used three 10 ml of water to wash the product. After the product was dry, we weighed, calculate the percent yield and determined the melting point of the product.