9. Juzlova et al (1996) described that amino acid addition in growth medium of Monascus lead to increase red pigment production than other pigment. Metal ions additions showed a great effect on Monascus both growth and red pigment production (Fig. 10). Weinberg (1989) stated that trace metals have stimulatory effects on secondary metabolism. Metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mg2+ showed strong effect on both growth and pigments production of Monascus sp.
The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >N-C= O which as rearrangement gives carbonial . This carbonial abstract proton from water to give NAG. The established over degradation of NAG to 4-MBA was also obseved in alkali condition. Degradation pathway of AN is shown in Fig.3.
The electrochemical behaviour of copper-1,10-phenanthroline (phen) complex in aqueous and in water-acetone mixed solutions was studied by CV-thin layer spectroelectrochemistry. In aqueous solution, [Cu(II)(phen)2]2+ complex electrochemically reduced to [Cu(I)(phen)2H2O]+ with maximum absorption at 405nm, and followed by a reversible chemical reaction. The formal potential, E0=0.078V, the number of electron transferred, n=1.0, and the equilibrium constant of the following chemical reaction, K=0.107 (0.005), were determined. In water-acetone mixed solution, [Cu(II)(phen)2]2+ reduced to [Cu(I)(phen)2]+ with maximum absorption at 435 nm. Keywords: CV-thin layer spectroelectrochemistry; copper-1,10-phenanthroline complex 1.
Figure 55 demonstrates the variation of the in-cylinder peak pressure with load for six different types of fuel. As it can be observed, the peak pressure increases with increasing the engine load. The reason behind that is that the mass flow rate of air is kept constant when the engine speed is steady ( =1700 rpm in this case) ,however the amount of fuel injected is increasing , thus the rate of mixing between air and fuel is lower which delays the ignition period
3.2 Effect of Pressure and Equivalence Ratio Fig. 3 (1) - (3) give the effects of pressure and equivalence ratio on ignition delay times of DME/air, n-butane/air and 50%DME50%n-butane/air binary fuel. Note that for all mixtures, ignition delay times decreased with the increase of pressure, meaning that the increase of pressure can promote fuel ignition in current conditions. This is mostly due to the increased fuel concentration and enhanced molecule collision probability at elevated pressures.
Name: Brendan Date : 24th Nov How temperature affects the rate of reaction Research Question: Does increasing or decreasing the temperature of hydrochloric acid affect the rate of reaction with magnesium? Introduction: The four factors that affect the rate of reaction; surface area, catalysts, temperature and concentration. In this case, it would be the temperature (Rate of Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid).
The mean baseline cardiac output (CO) was obtained to be 4,060 ml/min. However, the CO increased with increase in the intensity of exercise with the CO for mild exercise increasing to 8,820 and that for moderate exercise increasing to 18,375. This was an increase of 117% and 353% respectively. The baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 88.3 mmHg. With the introduction of mild exercise, the MAP reduced by 8.66 mmHg to 79.67 mmHg.
Gobe and team used AuI or AuIII complexes for the synthesis of pentacyclic indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines from N-allyl tryptamines and ortho-alkynylarylaldehydes(36). They performed this reaction following the novel work done by Adithi Danda et al for the development of a catalytic two-step reaction sequence to access a range of complex heterocyclic frameworks based on biorelevant indole/oxindole scaffolds using Au(1) complex as a catalyst(37). They initiated their study by establishing the suitable catalytic system for the Pictet–Spengler gold-catalyzed cyclization onepot process (Scheme 16). To this aim, N-allyl tryptamine 70 and aldehyde 71 were reacted in the presence of catalytic amounts of diphenyl phosphate (DPP, 5 mol%), to ensure catalysis of the Pictet–Spengler reaction and various catalyst 72 in dichloroethane at
The motivation of this investigation was to achieve 85% of methanol recovery from the distillate. II. Methodology: The distillation column was analyzed theoretically using McCabe Thiele to establish the number of stages required for separation. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for methanol and 2-propanol was used to plot curves of methanol-vapor fraction versus methanol-liquid fraction, and methanol liquid-vapor fraction versus temperature.
The scatter graph included in the results section further solidify and visually represent these observations. The reaction rate of the catalase exposed to pH 1 is barely conceivable on the diagram as its average rate of reaction was 2 mL/minute. The graph shows that pH 3 grew exponentially compared to the previous, providing a mean rate of 54 mL/minute. The pH levels of 6, 7, and 8 provided the greatest rates of catalytic reaction, which can be clearly seen via the graph’s three highest peaks. These results were very similar, and provided reaction rates of 58, 57, and 59 mL/minute respectively.
Experimental Clay-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol Cyclohexanol (10.0336 g, mmol) was added to a 50 mL round bottom flask containing five boiling chips, Montmorillonite K10 clay (1.0430 g) was then added to the cyclohexanol and the mixture was swirled together. The flask was then placed in a sand bath and attached to a simple distillation apparatus. The contents of the flask were then heated at approximately 150 °C to begin refluxing the cyclohexanol. The distillation flask was then loosely covered with aluminum foil and the hood sash was lowered in order to minimize airflow. As the reaction continued, the temperature was adjusted in order to maintain a consistent rate of distillation.
Introduction The purpose of this lab was to compare simple distillations of two sets of liquids by graphing the boiling points. One set of simple distillation of two liquids were supposed to have a boiling point difference of bout 30C while the other set of simple distillations had a melting point difference of about 57C. Furthermore, by conducting this experiment, students would develop a better understand of distillation and gas chromatography. Furthermore, I hypothesized that cyclohexane and p-xylene distill better than cyclohexane and toluene since cyclohexane and p-xylene have a larger boiling point difference than cyclohexane and toluene. The boiling point of cyclohexane is 80.74C while the boiling point for p-xylene is 138.23C and the boiling point for toluene is 110.6, thus
rtists dating back to the Prehistoric times, attempted to create human figures. They differ in their reasoning for making them, as well as the style of each one. The Cycladic, Female Figure, 2500-2400 B.C.E., and the Classical, Doryphoros 480-400 BCE by Polykleitos both are examples of how different human statue styles and purposes change between periods. Culture of the Cycladic time period, 2500-2400 BCE, is widely unknown. However, what is known about the Cycladic culture came from Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey.