Dörnyei's Theory Of Motivation

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In the literature on motivation, general consensus on the definition of motivation emphasizes that “motivation is sometimes described as a need which activates behavior, desire or want that serves to energize and direct goal-oriented behavior (Kleinginna and Kleinginna, 1981a).”
According to Harmer (2001, p.51), motivation is “some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something.” While Ellis (1994) was stating that motivation has an influence on what a learner learns, how the learner behaves and how much the learner’s achievement is, Wlodwoski (1985, p. 2) explained motivation as “the processes that can
(a) arouse and instigate behavior,
(b) give direction or purpose to behavior,
(c) continue to allow
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This level is consisted of various target language related components such as culture, community or pragmatism. The second level is the learner level which focuses on what an individual adds to language learning process. Specifically, self-confidence is the main issue of this level. The third level is learning situation level which includes intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and motivational components as course- specific motivational component, teacher- specific motivational component and group- specific motivational component. As seen in Table 1, interest, relevance, expectancy and satisfaction are the main factors of course-specific motivation in learning situation level. Moreover, affiliative motive, authority type and direct socialization of motivation by modelling, task-presentation and feedback are the key elements of the teacher-specific component. The last component of learning situation level is group-specific motivation and this component mainly focuses on the factors such as integrative or instrumental goal-orientedness, norm and reward system referring to intrinsic or extrinsic, group cohesiveness and classroom goal structure. Dörnyei (1996) stated that three levels of motivation, language level, learner level and learning situation levels may have an influence on each other. As mentioned before, a noticeable point is that Dörnyei emphasized that instrumental motivation is also needed to be considered in language learning process. By witnessing this explanation, it is possible to say that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are not equal to each other and also at some situations extrinsic motivation may be more dominant than intrinsic motivation. Besides Dörnyei, Qxford (1996) expressed that instrumental motivation needs to be more important in language learning process and took attention to search more variables on

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