DNA consist of macromolecules which are; nitrogenous base, a phosphate sugar backbone and a pentose sugar. DNA has a double helical structure due to the coiling of two biopolymer strands. This double helix structure is made of nucleotides composed of either, thymine, guanine, cytosine or adenine, a monosaccharide(deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Covalent bonds join the nucleotides together in a chain form. This is between the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate component of the other nucleotide, which brings about the alternating sugar phosphate backbone.All biological information is stored in DNA which makes every organism unique.
A nucleus is basically the “brain” of a cell. It controls reproduction and contains the genetic information needed to reproduce. It can be found in eukaryotic cells. B. Endoplasmic reticulum- there are two types, the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is involved in synthesizing and packaging proteins for use.
Eg. Ferritin. Nucleic Acids  Nucleic acids are known as genetic materials. They are macromolecules meaning that they are polymers of nucleotides (phosphate group, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base). Living matter is composed of nucleic acids in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Globin- It is a protein surrounding & protecting the heme molecule. Heme synthesis: Heme synthesis is carried out in mitochondria & cytosol of the cell involving cascade of steps :- 1) The first step occurs in mitochondria, where condensation of succinyl-CoA & glycine is carried out by enzyme ALA-synthase resulting in product formation i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid. 2) 5-aminolevulinic acid is transported to the cytosol for formation of porphobilinogen molecule. 3) After formation
Color also changes the texture but not quite the length. They are all unhealthy and sometimes using an excessive amount of shampoo and conditioner could make the hair hard. Some hair colors contain plants and minerals, and some even contain pigments such as henna or black walnut shells. Most others contain natural bleaching or result in reactions that change the hair color. Natural pigments usually work by coating the hair shaft and
Professor Martin presented that blood evidence can help sequence what has happened at a crime scene, whether the bloody fingerprint came first or the spatter did. Also included throughout the presentation was a variety of types of blood patterns. Projection mechanisms include cast-off, arterial, and expirated (blood in an airway that could be spit or coughed up); I learned that
Theory Agarose gel electrophoresis is a widely used procedure in various areas of biotechnology. This simple and precise analytical procedure is used in the research, biomedical and forensic laboratories. It is used for (i) determining the size of DNA molecules in the range of 500 to 30,000 base pairs, (ii) to analyze DNA fragments generated by restriction enzymes, and (iii) to separate other charged biomolecules such as dyes, RNA and proteins. Principle DNA molecules are negatively charged at neutral or alkaline pH and migrate towards anode when an electric field is applied. Charge/ mass ratio of nucleic acid is unity, thus migration occurs largely on the basis of molecular size of the DNA molecules.
KINETICS OF MULTISUBSTRATE REACTIONS Introduction Enzyme kinetics is the study of rate of biochemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is measured and the their effect is measured or investigated. Studying an enzyme kinetics in this way we can check the catalytic activity of enzyme, its major role in metabolism, and how its activity is determined. Enzymes are protein in nature and binds to substrates. These substrate molecules bind to active site of enzyme and changed into products through a number of steps known as enzymatic reactions.
This show good interaction of subunit structures to form the complex structure of γ-secretase. Docked result of all the subunits (1044residues) Number of Residue Percentage of the total Favoured Region 954 91.4 Allowed Region 63 6.0 Outlier Region 27 2.6 Table.6: Ramachadran plot analysis of the tertiary structure generated using all the subunits of the gamma-secretase Figure.13: Ramachandran plot of the tertiary structure generated from all the subunits of gamma-secretase. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE Swiss PDB Viewer
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.
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It is still used to trace DNA of any suspects in crime scenes. Because this method is so accurate, most detectives use this method of tracking DNA. I 'm going to tell you how the process of this method is going to be done. First, the detectives start by finding finger prints or blood samples. Once they collect samples they hand it over to a forensic scientist to analyze them.
Macromolecules are usually used to refer to large biological polymer which are made up of small monomers linked together. All living things contain organic macromolecules, which is divided into four main groups: Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. (D 'Onofrio, 2009-2015) Characteristic for these organic molecules is that they are made up of only a small number of elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and to smaller amounts nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Carbohydrates are better known as sugars and starches. There are three main categories in which carbohydrates can be divided into: Monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
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