Dairy Manufacturing Case Study

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4.1 Study Area
Gwalior is an oldest and historical city in Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior is enclosed by industrial and commercial zones of nearby districts (Malanpur in Bhind, Banmor in Morena). It is located at 26˚.11̀́̓49̓N and 78˚.8̓47̓̓E. The present study of physicochemical treatment conducted on dairy wastewater of Gwalior Sahakari Dugdha Sangh Maryadit (Banmore).This industry is 20 k.m. away from Gwalior at Morena road.This dairy plant produced consumer milk, butter, ghee, lassi, shrikhand, peda, ice cream etc. from various processes such as show in fig. 4.1 Total production capacity of milk plant
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4.2 Process overview
4.2.1 Milk production
These are the following processes involve in milk production.

• receipt and filtration/clarification of the raw milk;
• separation of all part from the milk fat (for standardisation of market milk, production of cream and butter and other fat-based products, and production of milk powders);
• Pasteurisation;
• Homogenisation
• Packaging and storage, including cold storage for perishable products
• Supply of final products.

4.2.2 Butter production
The butter production process has been conducted by sanchi Dairy, these are the following steps production process.
• Preparation of the cream;
• Destabilisation and breakdown of the fat and water emulsion;
• Aggregation and concentration of the fat particles;
• Formation of a stable emulsion;
• Packaging and storage;
• Distribution.
4.2.3 Milk powder
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The milk is preheated in tubular heat exchangers before being dried. The preheating temperature depends on the season (which affects the stability of the protein in the milk) and on the characteristics desired for the final powder product. The preheated milk is fed to an evaporator to increase the concentration of total solids. The solids concentration that can be reached depends on the efficiency of the equipment and the amount of heat that can be applied without unduly degrading the milk protein. The milk concentrate is then pumped to the atomiser of a drying chamber. In the drying chamber the milk is dispersed as a fine fog-like mist into a rapidly moving hot air stream, which causes the individual mist droplets to instantly evaporate. Milk powder falls to the bottom of the chamber, from where it is removed. Finer milk powder particles are carried out of the chamber along with the hot air stream and collected in cyclone separators.


4.3 Sources of milk losses

A major contributing factor to a dairy plant’s effluent load is the cumulative effect of minor and, on occasions, major losses of milk. These losses can occur, for example, when pipe work is uncoupled during tank transfers or equipment is being rinsed. Table 4.3 provides a list of the sources of milk losses.

Table 4.3 Sources of milk losses

Process area Source of milk

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