Caffeine, Nicotine, ethanol, and a control solution were tested. The heart rate of Daphnia was measured after exposure to each of the chemicals. After testing, it was found that ethanol depressed the heart rate while exposed, but the heart rate stabilized after exposure. With exposure to nicotine, the heart rate increased by 20%. If more nicotine was added, the effects were varied and sometimes irreversible.
A variety of factors can change the heart rate of Daphnia. According to Richard Handy (2012), “The heart rate (which can be up to 300 beats per minute) can be monitored and counted in different conditions – for example changing water temperature, or changing the type
Daphnia Magna are small crustaceans that are excellent for observing the effect of depressants on their nervous system. The purpose of this specific experiment is to observe the effect of ethanol, aspirin, and caffeine on daphnia’s heart rate. Not only do these chemicals affect heart rate, but they also affect the frequency of reproduction, number of eggs produced, and body structure. Pesticides similar to these chemicals can be released into the environment and daphnia re useful in monitoring toxicity levels. The agents being tested in this experiment can be administered to determine the effects of hormones, stimulants, antidepressants, and neurotransmitters.
Daphnia Introduction: Daphnia is a large genus comprising over 200 species of small freshwater crustaceans that belongs to the family Daphniidae and the order “Cladocera”. The common name of Daphnia is water flea and this name is due to jerky-flea like swimming movement. Daphnia often live is freshwater bodies of relative different quality including swamps, lakes, streams and rivers. Description: Daphnia in general are small and may range from as small as 0.5 mm to as long as 5.0 mm in length, sometimes more; and hence some daphnia species can be seen by naked eyes (e.g. Daphnia magna) , while others must are microscopic (e.g. Daphnia pulex).
During this experiment, mitochondria were isolated from 20.2 grams of cauliflower using extraction buffer, filtration through Miracloth, and centrifusion. Twelve samples containing various volumes of mitochondrial suspension, assay buffer, DCIP, sodium azide, and citric acid cycle intermediates were prepared to be read by a spectrophotometer. The inclusion of the dye DCIP allowed for the absorbance of the reactions between the mitochondrial suspension and the TCA cycle intermediates succinate, malonate, and oxalate to be measured, as DCIP turns from blue to colorless as the activity of succinate dehydrogenase increases. Experimental Findings Increasing the number of mitochondria in the reaction did increase the reduction of DCIP relative to the amount of mitochondrial suspension present.
From this research and literature the expected results of the experiment were to see an increase in membrane permeability, this result was observed. The study provides a brief insight into what kind of effects alcohol can have on cell membranes but it is limited. The results can be used to understand but not explain more practical applications, like human cells for example. Conclusion
The effects of alcohol on Biological Membranes. Introduction In this experiment it will be analysed the damage alcohols can have on biological membranes. Membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Membranes usually help maintain the balance in a cell as it holds all the cellular materials.
Introduction Metabolism is the sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions within a living organism to sustain life. The energy required to perform these reactions is provided by oxygen in the form of ATP, therefore the oxygen consumption rate can be measured to determine the metabolic rate. Since oxygen is obtained through respiration, the efficiency of an organism’s respiratory system affects its metabolism. Previous studies have shown that caffeine affects the human respiratory center and occasionally dilates bronchus. It can thus stimulate human respiration and increase the metabolic rate (Haggins et al, 1915).
As mentioned in the hypothesis, the prediction is that as the temperature increases towards the optimal, the rate of respiration will increase. As the temperature exceeds the optimal, the rate of respiration will decrease. The temperature of the environment can be varied by placing the respiration chamber under a temperature-controlled water bath/cooling bath. The temperatures that will be used in this experiment will range from 0ºC to 50ºC in 10ºC increments. Digital thermometer will be used to measure the temperature of air.
Caffeine is a chemical found naturally in few plants all over the world. From these plants it is processed into its pure form and then put into other things such as soda, energy drinks, tea, and pills. Energy drinks and soda are some of the most widely marketed products in the world, even though they contain the highest concentration of caffeine outside of pure caffeine supplements. It is a stimulant that affects everyone in strange but semi predictable ways. Research has been done on this topic since the 1920’s and many different conclusions have been reached.
Whenever a consumer uses an energy drink a series of effects begin in his/her body. The organism receives an instant boost as the caffeine successfully manages to block the duties of the adenosine, a chemical located in the brain whose function is involved with sleeping. After the completion of the process caffeine forces part of the neurons in the brain to lighten up, which later on causes the body to release the hormone adrenaline. When the hormone is active it forces the liver to provide the bloodstream with additional
Background: Explain on the cellular level how dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would affect the cells of the SA node. Dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would increase the heart rate because the calcium channels open faster. Explain on the cellular level how dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would affect the cells of the contractile muscle of the ventricles. Dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would increase the heart rate because the actin binds to the myosin more quickly due to the calcium channels opening faster leading to faster contraction of the heart.
Perspectives are often prejudiced by preconceived notions. Society has historically communicated that addicts are morally negligent people without any inclination to cease their destructive behavior and that the addiction itself is produced because of a character flaw or a weakness. Citing the addict’s seemingly careless attitude toward the financial burden and pain and suffering they arbitrarily cause others as proof of their imagined personality imperfections. As with numerous other things, unfortunately, experience is the best teacher. Before my personal journey with a drug-addicted child, I also held to the belief that an addict was an addict by choice and could stop the abuse by simply making the decision to.
Coffee vs energy drinks, who will win? People drink coffee and energy drinks because they wake you up and they get you ready for the day. Most energy drinks hold 8.4 ounces. On the other hand, coffee has 8 ounces. On the healthier side, coffee only has 1 calorie for 8 ounces while energy drinks have 110 calories for 8.4 ounces.