Learning to constructivist is an active process aiming to develop learners’ new ideas based on their current and experience and knowledge (Brandon & All, 2010). Constructivism as a learning theory centers its principles on helping the learning process unlike controlling it as in the view of behaviorism (Lober, 2006). Key contributors to the development of this theoretical approach include Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Ernst von Glasersfeld. (Liu & Chen, 2010). The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning.
Differences One significant difference between Bruner and Vygotsky is that Bruner believes that students learn better if they obtain information and knowledge themselves through active participation and teacher only giving support at the right time. Conversely, Vygotsky believes that students face challenges when teachers left too much work for them to do independently. He thought students learned better when they communicated, interacted, shared and discussed with one another. Real life
The two definitions, working memory and deep learning describe the same phenomena. They describe the highpoint of learning outcomes. Both are manifested within the student and depend on the functions of their brain. The focus of this working memory is not an inevitable product of the lesson, the teacher or the classroom. It can only occur if conditions elsewhere allow.
Behavioural learning theory believe that behaviour is predictable, and because it is predictable it can and should be corrected, encouraged using techniques such as rewards, punishments, and behaviour ques to achieve desired behavioural responses from students (Weegar & Pacis, 2012). Is contrast, cognitive theorists place emphasis on the relationship between the individual and behaviour claiming that each individual will interpret the same event or situation differently and their behaviour will reflect this difference, meaning that no two children will react the same way to a certain punishment or reward an therefore behaviour cannot be predicted and behaviour management needs a more individually tailored approach (O’Donnell et, al., 2016). Socioculturliasts believe behaviour is learnt from socially observing peers and then imitating their behaviour, they also value intrinsic motivation, believing that if a lesson is student centred the student will be motivated to stay on task and create deep meaning (Richardson, 2003). Consequently there is no absolute solution to perfecting a learner’s behaviour and a combination of all three theories in the classroom would likely produce best
Utilization of a result based model can highlight disregarded ranges. Self-directed learning: Outcome based instruction urges understudies to assume more liability for their own learning. It furnishes understudies with a reasonable structure which permits them to arrange their studies and to gage their advancement through the educational programs. Flexibility: Outcome based training is a conceivably adaptable methodology. It doesn't direct the type obviously conveyance or the instructive methodology.
(Bieling 2006). The group would learn from each other and would aware that they are not the one who is suffering from this problem. Learning from each other would help them to develop the desired behavior. Teaching problem-solving skills to a group is an important part of CBT. Teaching each other how to deal with the problem is one of the important factors in CBT group.
New behaviour will continue if it is protected. According to this theory, the learning process is made more efficient if the new behaviour is demonstrated as well. One of the strengths of learning theories is that they developed methods for practical work. The criticism though, is that in their willingness to achieve visible results, they can become influencing. In learning theories, one was not concerned with the unconscious processes, but more with the visible behaviour.
“The focus on outputs rather than on inputs to learning is central to the competencies perspective.” (Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 141). Competency based learning is an objective-based learning. It has a number of advantages. It focuses learners, especially on learners ' target needs (necessities) with the application of criterion reference assessment, therefore learning takes place in effective and efficient ways since objectives and materials are based on learners ' need, because of well-defined objectives in course descriptions.” (Drs. I Made Sujana,
This means that students must interact with their environment in order to adapt and learn. He also warns that a balance is struck between child centered learning and teacher centered learning for it to work effectively, and this is the sole duty of the instructor or coach. PIAGET THEORY Piagets theory is based on the logic that adaptation must take place for a child to learn and the processes that allows such adaptation to happen is assimilation and accommodation. Both processes work together simultaneously. .He believed that for learning to take place a child has to adapt to his environment and knowledge is constructed and manipulated within a child.
Discovery learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction. Discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts and relationships for themselves. There are varying definitions of what discovery learning is. A review of the literature suggests that discovery learning occurs whenever the learner is not provided with the target information or conceptual understanding and must find it independently and with only the provided materials. Within discovery-learning methods, there is an opportunity to provide the learners with intensive, or conversely, minimal guidance (Prem Lata 2005) and both types can take many forms (e.g., manuals, simulations, feedback, example problems).