Oldenbury, the Secretary of the English Royal Society, wrote in a letter to a German scientist that amicable relationships between educated people aided “investigation and elucidation of the truth” (Doc 6). This shows how it gradually became the social norm to exchange ideas with others. Oldenbury appreciated the sciences and wanted scientific ideas to spread all over the world. Cavendish, a female English natural philosopher, wanted to set up a school of philosophy but was not able to due to the “self-conceit of the masculine and the disregard of the female sex” (Doc 9). This shows that while society was increasingly more progressive, women were still limited more than men in their rights and responsibilities.
Discuss the major contributions of feminist theory to the understanding of social And political life. Feminist theory has come to be recognised as an influential theory that has singled out the social exclusion of women. This could be seen as its main premise but it is a far broader perspective. Feminism has articulated that gender differences subjected to sex as argued have played a secondary role to men in the most influential decision making and power positions in society. This has caused the invisibility of women, which has become an indicator of inequality.
Gender is not associated with one’s physical constructive, then again, it is far more confounding. It is characterised as “the complex interrelationship between an individual’s sex (gender biology) and one’s internal sense of self as male, female, both or neither (gender identity) as well as one’s outward presentations and behaviour (gender expression), related to that perception, including their gender roles.” Freud pointed out that when we meet a person, the first thing that we notice and establish is that person’s gender. Most of the times, if we are not able to place or establish a person’s gender, it will cause inconvenience to us. Perhaps, this ‘establishment’ is interlinked with the way we behave with the person, which is explained by the gender system, predominant in one’s culture. A gender system incorporates “processes that define males and females as different in socially significant ways and justify inequality on the basis of that difference.” This gender system lays down the guidelines about what behaviour a particular society expects of males and females.
"There are female infants and children who cannot be impregnated, there are older women who cannot be impregnated.... What the question does is try to make the problematic of reproduction central to the sexing of the body. But I am not sure that is, or ought to be, what is absolutely salient or primary in the sexing of the body." (Butler, quoted in Osborne & Segal, 1994) Thus her contention that women cannot be a unified homogeneous group is justified, as they share so much of diversity: "The very subject of women is no longer understood in stable or abiding terms." Thus, we have to look for a new way to identify and define gender: "The consequence of such sharp disagreements about the meaning of gender.... establishes the need for a radical re-thinking of the categories of identity within the context of relations of radical gender
Mark twain demolished coopers romanticism in his novels. Cooper’s tone was also criticized as being reactionary, romantic and pedagogical in tone. Sydney Krause States that all of the harsh criticism and the bad talk about Cooper is not the words of a person with good judgment. She is not saying that Mark is wrong, but that he is over stressing the criticism and even though she does agree with him in some ways Cooper is still an amazing writer (“James”). John McWilliams also believes that Mark twain‘s attack on Cooper is not justified.
His eyes were so shifting, so leering and slippery; the slight cast made one unsure of the direction of his gaze” (Carter, 1967, p. 54). Constructing female identity in light of the male gaze prevents them of forming their real identities and marginalizes female to a sexual tool that satisfying male; Beauvoir argues that the social and cultural norms, which support males, allow female constructing only their stereotypical gender representations; female are expected to belong to male, “she is nothing other than what man decides, she is this called the other"(, 1949, p. 26). Melanie, who is inquisitive about having sexual relationship, turns to change her mind; she recognizes that this experience seems to prevent her from establishing her real gender identity. The sexual relationship that male and female seek reveals the sexual dependent of male and female, which affects the process of gender identity formation and prevents individuals of having an authentic gender
Mary Wollstonecraft does not agree with the statement that women don not have enough mentally strength to become morally good by themselves. She says that: “To account for, and excuse the tyranny of man, many ingenious arguments have been brought forward to prove, that the two sexes, in the acquirement of virtue, ought to aim at attaining a very different character: or, to speak explicitly, women are not allowed to have sufficient strength of mind to acquire what really deserves the name of virtue. Yet it should seem, allowing them to have souls, that there is but one way appointed by Providence to lead mankind to either virtue or happiness.” Mary Wollstonecraft believes that if women have souls they supposed to have rational power as men. “Thus Milton describes our first frail mother; though when he tells us that women are formed for softness and sweet attractive grace, I cannot comprehend his meaning, unless, in the true Mahometan strain, he meant to deprive us of souls, and insinuate that we were beings only designed by sweet attractive grace, and docile blind obedience, to gratify the senses of man when he can no longer soar on the wing of contemplation.” Then she added that the women should be kept as children and taught nothing but skill for pleasing the husbands. She agrees that children should be kept innocent.
What modern feminists refuse to admit is that feminism is only one side of a two-sided coin of inequality. A “movement” that advocates for the rights of one gender over another is sexist and unequal by nature. If feminists were striving for equality, then they wouldn’t be FEMinists. Being feminist, simply put, means that you want women to not only be equal to, but greater than men.. Thus, I believe that feminism is a poorly made masquerade to cover women’s desire to control men.
Scientific thinkers now live under the influence of Darwin’s theory because his studies have become much of a lesson to them. His discovery of natural selection became one of the ways of advancing philosophy. Darwin brings about motivation to today’s scientific thinker that they must stand for what they believe and therefore prove it as much as they
It has been argued that “the late nineteenth century was a scientific age. Literature could not simply remain the same after Darwin: the rules had changed” (Link 75) and that is what naturalist did. They started to reveal the origin to people’s actions and beliefs, as well as the cause. In The Awakening, Kate Chopin discusses some of the most relevant actions and new beliefs, such as divorce, adultery or woman and feminity. Although the work was quite controversial when she first wrote it, in recent years it has gained good reviews.
This study connects to Schilts book because it shows how transgender inequality is a huge issue. Admitting that this does not look at trans women vs. trans men, it does represent everyone as a whole. The ignorance that some people have is large and it shows their fears and