In qualitative research, the researcher interprets the data by developing a description, analyzing data and finally drawing conclusions about its meaning theoretically. The characteristics of qualitative research (Rossman and Rallis, 1998) cited in Creswell are: 1) Qualitative research usually done in the field. Meaning that the researcher should go to the field of the research object in order to collect the primary data. In this case, researcher will be able to know and understand deeply about the research object and gain better experience and got more detail data. 2) Qualitative research uses data collective which involve the participant actively and sensitively in the study.
how and why the exploration was composed, led and examined, and how this prompted specific conclusions. Thus methodological reflexivity may involve considering these sorts of issues, for example, ‘in what way the examination ought to be outlined or directed with a specific end goal to give a persuading record’; ‘is there any another possible interpretation or rebuttal of the narrative’; ‘what role does analysts play in delivering results’; ‘what sorts of selections were made during research process and the reasons for these
Following data analysis, the researcher could restate their research question, thereafter present findings and conclusions. A sound methodology requires not only a summary of the findings, but acknowledgement of any weaknesses in the study. According to Yin (2003b) to achieve construct validity, the case study researcher will make use of multiple sources, internal validity; use logic models and do explanation building and for external validity, the use of theory. He adds that reliability will depend on the ability to develop a database. The reliability can be tested by finding out such things about the said
Why did we choose this? Justify its relevance. Content analysis is a strategy for outlining any type of object by checking different parts of its essence. This empowers a more target assessment than contrasting elements in light of the impressions of an audience. Content examination starts with distinguishing research directions and picking a unit or examinations.
However, several authors on research methods, notably Silverman, identify how how qualitative researchers may incorporate various strategies to deal with these issues (Shenton, 2004). However, Lincoln and Guba, 1985 cited in Tobin and Begley, (2004) address the issues of trustworthiness in qualitative research, by introducing criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and
Data Validity To confirm the validity of the data, a check is needed to test the data and the data analysis. One of the techniques used in this research in checking the validity of the data is triangulation. Triangulation is an analytic technique, used during fieldwork as well as later during formal analysis, to corroborate a finding with evidence from two or more different sources (Yin, 2011, p.313). Besides, triangulation aims to gather multiple perspectives on the situation being studied (Cresswell, 2010, 629). There are two mains types of triangulation; by source and by methods (Ary, 2010, p.499).
( this is what the authors should be ask because there are many different approaches to conducting a systematic review ).This give the authors of the study with an approach to testing how robust the results of the review are relative to give decisions and assumptions that were made in the process of conducting the review. All authors should know how the key decisions and assumptions may conceivably have affected the results for a particular review. Different types of decisions can be examined in sensitivity analyses, as: - in case of changing the inclusion criteria for the types of study (like using different methodological cut points), participants, interventions or outcome measures . - when there is some ambiguity as to whether they meet the inclusion criteria. - in cases of some uncertainty about the results, so repeat analys data using a reasonable range of results for studies (ex.
This overall plan, called a research proposal, it tells a reader about the research problem and how you are planning to investigate. Broadly, a research proposal’s main function is to detail the operational plan for obtaining answers to the research questions. In doing so it ensures, and reassures the readers of, the validity of the methodology to obtain answers accurately and objectively. Requirements may also vary within an institution, from discipline to discipline or from supervisor to supervisor. A research proposal must tell you and your research supervisor and a reviewer the following information about your study, what you are proposing to do how you plan to precede; why you selected the proposed
The questions should be broad and loosely structured, following the intent of the research questions. Next, the interview questions are accompanied by a list of possible sources of data. The literature was revisited between interviews to gain a better understanding of new data. Clear conceptualizations assisted in taking definitions into the study, and combined with the other sources of data, comprised the mass of data available to study the phenomenon of interest. Thinking in metaphors, and creating simplistic models and thematic maps were essential activities in data management.
The focus of the studies under this approach moves from particular aspects to the generalisations or broader theories. Different methods are used in the inductive approach, which are experiments, interviews, survey, and others in order to gather information. Under this approach, the previous information is researched and evaluate from the perspective of the research aim and objectives. Furthermore, this information is supported by the data gathered from survey, interview or another approach. For this considered study, inductive approach is focused because it is using research question to narrow down the scope of the study and focuses on both general and particular perspective (Goddard & Melville,