DNA in Forensic Science DNA is the carrier of genetic information in humans and other living organisms. It has become a very useful tool in forensic science since it was discovered. In forensic science, DNA testing is used to compare the genetic structure of two individuals to establish whether there is a genetic relationship between them. One example of the use of DNA in forensic science that is important in biology today is comparing a suspect’s DNA profile to DNA that was discovered at a crime scene. This can be done by DNA fingerprinting or by collection of body fluids, such as saliva, semen, urine, blood, skin and hair, found at the scene.
Firstly, to sequence a gigantic DNA of a human genome, the DNA should be cut into smaller fragments which can be sequenced individually and the fragments of the DNA are aligned in order and they are cut based on overlaps and this will produce the complete sequence. Cutting the DNA can be done using constraint enzymes and chemically by clipping. The organization of sequences of overlapping pieces is done by a computer The shotgun part originates from the way the clone is set up for sequencing: it is arbitrarily sheared into little pieces and sub cloned into an "all inclusive" cloning vector. The library of subfragments is inspected indiscriminately, and various succession peruses produced (utilizing a widespread groundwork coordinating sequencing from inside the cloning vector). These grouping peruses are then gathered into coting and the entire succession of the clone produced.
According to Wikipedia, Transgenic organisms can be defined as, “an organism that has been genetically altered by adding genes into, and out of, the organism to achieve the desired outcome, this process is called genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is made possible through certain techniques within biotechnology and bioengineering”. More and more organisms, including plants and animals, are being modified today. These processes are justified based on their supposed “endless benefits”, but at what cost? This leaves us with concerns about whether these processes are ethically correct and whether it is appropriate to use these organisms as a means of producing things such as pharmaceuticals.
Applications of RFLP: RFLP has been used for several genetic analysis applications since its invention, like: -To determine or confirm the source of a DNA sample such as in paternity tests or criminal investigations. - To identify a carrier of a disease-causing mutation in a family. ( Diseases that can be passed through generations of the family) Disadvantages of RFLP: Since its invention, RFLP has been a widely used genome analysis techniques in forensic science, medicine, and genetic studies. However, it has become almost obsolete with the advent of relatively simple and less expensive DNA profiling technologies such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The RFLP procedure requires numerous steps and takes weeks to show results, while techniques such as PCR can amplify target DNA sequences in a mere few hours.
It is given the powerful role of autophagy in tumor suppression. It specifically involves pathogens and other non-host entities. Autophagy permits the process of degrading and reusing of cellular components. Throughout this process, aimed cytoplasmic constituents are detached from the rest of the cell within a double-membraned vesicle recognized as an autophagosome. Proteins can undergo the process of degrading by the proteasome or by lysosomes.
Nowadays, biotechnology can be found virtually everywhere around us such as in our foods, drinks, clothes, medicine, plant, animals and many other things that we used and sometimes we doesn’t realize that it is the product from the biotechnology. What is biotechnology? Biotechnology can be defined by the words itself: bios that give the meaning of life, while technology means technique or process or scientific investigation used in the production of product or services to solve the problem. So, biotechnology means the use of technology and living organism for human benefits to solve the problem. Earlier, biotechnology is applied domestically in animals, plants crops, and also use of the microorganism to make bread, yogurt and cheese in order
In fact, any attempt to do so requires a very good understanding of the biology of the brain. Traditionally, the two disciplines most relevant to the biological psychologist have been neuroanatomy (the study of neural architecture of various brain regions together with mapping the route that connects them) and neurophysiology (the study of how neurons generate action potentials and neural information). However, in the last few decades the study of brain function has grown rapidly and attracted experts from many other fields, including biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, pharmacology, and computer technology. Not all scientists working in this field should be interested in behavior, although their findings may sometimes be of interest to those working in the field of biological psychology. Thus, in recent years, psychologists interested in brain had been acquainted with many other areas of biological science that lies outside the traditional domain of anatomy, physiology and
Microbiome studies worldwide have been started with the aim of understanding the function that these symbionts play and their effect on human health[2, 3]. Specifying the definition of the human microbiome has been complicated by confusion about terminology: for example, “microbiota” (the microbial taxa associated with humans) and “microbiome” (the catalogue of these microbes and their genes) are often used interchangeably. In addition, the term “metagenomics” originally referred to the characterization of total DNA, although now it is increasingly being applied to studies of marker genes such as the 16S rRNA gene. More fundamentally, however, new findings are leading us to question the concepts that are central to establishing the definition of the human microbiome, such as the stability of an individual's microbiome, the definition of the OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) that make up the microbiota, and whether a person has one microbiome or many. In this review, we cover progress towards defining the human microbiome in these different
David Lynn (Emory University), which helps the audience to have a good knowledge of the structures and forces during the supramolecular self-assembly process, and understand how the chemical information will be stored and translated into the new molecules in this process. His talk mainly focused on the mutant peptides of Aβ Amyloid protein that is well-known to be responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. By characterizing the properties of self-assembly of different pieces of peptides from Aβ Amyloid protein, he showed that this sequence specificity played an important role in self-assembly of these mutant peptides in vitro. In addition, I think he clearly explained the design of an in vivo genetic assay that is based on the use of the yeast prion, the Sup35 of S. cereviseiae. They studied the mechanism of this supramolecular self-assembly process according to the score able phenotype with this in vivo assay.
Biomedical engineers are currently researching methods of creating such organs researchers have grown solid jaw bones and tracheas from human stem cells towards this end. Bioinformatics: is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biologicaldata. As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics, mathematics, and engineering to analyze and interpret biological