Introduction Jennifer Ebarhardt who, through her collaboration with different experts in various fields such as law, criminology, novel studies that further law enforcements and judges as well as criminology discover in her studies found out that there is racial bias in today’s policing and sentencing of criminals such that black color is stereotype as group of people who are associated with violence and therefore they mostly received death sentence especially when their victims are whites and therefore they are blacks who are arrested. These behaviors can be best explains using the following theories: General Strain Theory According to this theory, people are involved in crimes because they are not in a position to achieve their goals making them to be frustrated and has the following sources: A person aspiring to become wealth and famous but these aspirations are impossible making them to engage in vandalism or physical attacks which are antisocial forms of behaviors, a person may experience strains due to removal of highly valued stimuli such as migration to new residence will make him/her to get involved in criminal activities in efforts to revenge the loss of highly valued stimuli. Black American youths are unable to meet making them to develop frustration and delinquency.
Injustice in The Criminal Justice System Due to several injustices within the American justice system, society has become more divided. The criminal justice system in the United States has been criticized for being a race-based establishment Institutions where minorities are subjected to more strenuous punishments than their white counterparts. Nonetheless, it goes without any debate that racism exists in the justice system. Are these realities the errors of a moral justice system, or does it prove that the criminal bias organization is working as expected? Is the criminal justice system utilized to regulate and manage the minority population?
Warren McCleskey was convicted of armed robbery and the murder of a white police officer. At his trial the jury found him guilty and sentenced him to death. McCleskey challenged his death sentence and claimed that he was being subjected to racial discrimination and provided statistical evidence showing racial disparities in the administration of death sentences. He also presented strong evidence showing that African Americans have been disproportionately sentenced to capital punishment compared to white Americans. While I obviously think that what McCleskey did was wrong, I definitely think that he was right to challenge the constitutionality of his death sentence.
Especially African Americans, but in our recent history we have up all race crimes. I think this is due to the things our political leaders are saying. Many of them are trying to help, but they also say some racist things that ignite race wars. (Fighting for freedom) Many of our mass shootings in that occurs because of police shootings are because of race.
African Americans feel targeted in today’s society because so many innocent African Americans are being incarcerated, shot, and killed. Since 2001, it is 6.1 times likelier to be incarcerated as a black man than a white man. This is all because of skin color. Black Lives Matter (BLM) was a group created to raise awareness for the heinous acts the have presented itself to the black community
Jim Crow was a set of laws to enforce the superiority of whites to blacks. The Jim Crow laws were needed because people thought that blacks are of a lesser human. A few examples of these laws include illegal marriage of blacks and whites, bathrooms, and drinking fountains. A white person had been always superior. Some punishments for blacks not following the laws include lynching, torture, and death (Pilgrim).
In this article, Staples discusses the treatment of African Americans by U.S. police, emphasizing the history of racial profiling and discriminatory treatment. Staples focuses mainly on the arrest of Henry Louis Gates, Jr. who got arrested in his home located in Cambridge, Massachusetts which relvealed the sharp racial divide over what police could do to innocent black people. Robert goes on to explain that the racial underpinnings cause the majoritity of the public to favor law enforcement as a slutionto crime. Robert claims the political support for U.S. legal discrimination leads the people against minorities in criminal penalties over small crimes which usually are nonviolent offenses. I will use this academic article to support my conclusion
Eighth amendment Death Penalty Receives Another Blow, This Time In Pennsylvania In this article, "Death Penalty Receives Another Blow, This Time In Pennsylvania" by Sam Wright from Above The Law, Mr. Wright discusses the controversy over death penalty and the difference between states deciding the standards of it. According to the article, two states, Connecticut and Pennsylvania both assigned a death penalty to two men who committed equally serious crimes. The problem arouses when the two men applied a relief to the courts; Connecticut accepted it and Pennsylvania didn 't. It gets even worse, when people dig deeper and find out the racial discrimination that went on behind the scenes.
The police jumped into action and treated this case with urgency. The type of injustice that this conflict displayed was distributive injustice. Distributive injustice “is concerned with the criteria that lead you to feel you received a fair outcome” (Deutsch, 2007, p. 44). I believe in most cases involving black people the news make the police out to be bad guys. The most recent cases with the killing of African American males will make you think that the police don’t care about Blacks.
In 2014, the UN Committee against Torture reprobated police brutality and inordinate use of force by law enforcement in the US, and highlighted the "steady and recurrent police shootings or fatal pursuits of unarmed black individuals. “According to a 2016 report by the United Nations ' Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, "contemporary police killings and the trauma that they create are evocative of the past racial terror of murder. There are many reasons as to why police officers can sometimes be overly combative. It is thought that some personality traits make some officers more predisposed to the use of excessive force than others. In one study, police psychologists were surveyed on officers who had used excessive force.
Two Sides of a Story: Death Penalty Debate Let us begin by looking at why the death penalty is morally wrong on many levels according to Stephen B. Bright, president of the Southern Center for Human Rights, and a teacher of criminal law. He wrote an essay on this debate called, “Why the United States Will Join the Rest of the World in Abandoning Capital Punishment.” We will also look at the other side of the debate (story), as to why the death penalty is morally legitimate in the views of Louis P. Pojman, whose essay is called, “ Why the Death Penalty is Morally Permissible,” which is just an excerpt from, Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? First, there are innocent people being executed for crimes they didn’t commit. Whether it be from forced confessions, where people have been interrogated too long, yelled at, and threatened to the point of exhaustion, and because of this, they give a false confession.
Annotated Bibliography Aronson, Jay D., and Simon A. Cole. “Science And The Death Penalty: DNA, Innocence, And The Debate Over Capital Punishment In The United States.” Law & Social Inquiry 2009, pp. 603-633. Academic Search Complete, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=43649701&site=ehost-live. Jay D. Aronson and Simon A. Cole’s article “Science and the Death Penalty: DNA, Innocence, and the Debate over Capital Punishment in the United States,” (2009) proposes that the death penalty needs to be abolished because of the permanence of capital punishment.