Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours. Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008) Behaviourism
However, Darseni’s theory of learning takes a holistic approach, where learning is cumulative and result in developing an individual who is reflective and self-regulated. We will discuss compare and contrast
Technology-aided instruction has helped to develop customised learning tools to maximize the benefit. O’Conner (1998) states that it is necessary to examine learning
To improve learning in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that contains feedback on the effectiveness of their learning efforts. Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience, the process and goal of education are one and the same thing. Dewey (1897) all learning is re-learning. Learning is best facilitated by a process that draws out the students’ beliefs and ideas about a topic so that they can be examined, tested and integrated with new, more refined ideas. Learning needs the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world.
Learning strategies represent the behavior and thoughts, which occupies a student during learning. Learning strategies are the techniques used by students to test the new material to develop, organize and / or to understand and influence self-motivation and feelings. The use of mnemonic devices can be seen as one type of learning strategy. Learning strategies can be divided into several categories as under: - 1. Rehearsal strategies (For example, repeat items in a list, highlight the text of an article)
2 Describe the three domains of learning and their application (25) In learning there is the ability to acquire mental skills, develop different attitudes and perform new physical activities .A domain is A domain is a unique field of thought, activity, or interest, especially one over which someone has control, influence, or rights. Domains can be categorized as cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (attitude) and each has different levels from simplest to highest. They help teachers to plan and choose learning experiences and are interlinked depending on each other.
Experiencing (or doing) of a task is the first stage in which the individual, team or organization simply carries out the task assigned. The engaged person is usually not reflecting on the task as this time, but carrying it out with intention. Organizations at this stage may recognize that people with different backgrounds may have different experiences, and that such people are likely to vary in their readiness for their intercultural learning. Reflection involves reviewing what has been done and experienced. The skills of noticing differences in an organization help learners (e.g.,organizational members) identify subtle events and communicate
Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
Learning is a continuous process of dynamic commitment with experience and knowledge. Learning vitalizes in terms of acquiring new knowledge, or reinforces existing knowledge, personal behaviors and skills or preferences. Learning helps an individual to enhance their knowledge and also involve in developing skills, understanding and ideas more advanced. An effective learning is always leads to change, development and the desire to learn more. Learning styles include a progression of theories suggesting organized differences in individuals' natural or consistent model of acquiring and processing information in learning situations.