“Experiential learning is an integration and alteration of thinking and doing” (Mullins and Christy, 2010). Kolb believes focusing and reflecting on concrete experiences is essential. He constructed a four-stage cycle involving four flexible learning modes which were Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and Active Experimentation. Following this he also identified four learning style groups based on the four learning modes which were Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers and Accommodators (Hong et al 2007). Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle is very cleverly designed, it is a one way system where one can enter at any stage but must follow in sequence.
A brief summary of each learning style follows; summarized from The Kolb Learning Style Inventory – Version 3.1 – 2005 Technical Specifications. - Diverging an individual with diverging style has CE and RO as predominant learning capacities. Individuals with this learning style are best at viewing concrete circumstances from numerous diverse perspectives. They have a tendency to have expansive social diversions and like to accumulate data. They are interested by individuals, have a tendency to be innovative and passionate, and frequently spend significant time in expressions of the human experience.
It also helps the teacher to demonstrate achievement of the learning outcomes. Effective learning involves the learner’s interaction with people other than the teacher and with the resource provided by the teacher. The teaching techniques that is associated with effective learning are: - Modelling -
Learning style was developed by researchers to classify learners based on their approach to perceiving and processing information (Butch & Bartley, 2002). Learning style is defined as “specific behavioral pattern that an individual displays in learning” (Campbell 1996). Dunn defines it as a new way how new information is acquired by individual to develop new skills (1975 & 1989). Kolb (1984) defined it as a process where an individual retain new information and skills. Kolb’s theory of learning styles states that knowledge is created through transformation of experiences.
Most Efficient forms of the learning process: - Acc. to Lewin, learning is best facilitated in an environment where there is dialectic tension and conflict between immediate, concrete experience and analytic detachment. By bringing together the immediate experiences of the trainees and the conceptual models of the staff in an open atmosphere where inputs from each perspective could challenge and stimulate the other, a learning environment occurred with remarkable vitality and creativity. (Kolb.) Pillars of an efficient learning mechanism in group settings:- o Feedback:-There was a concern that organizations, groups and relationships generally suffered from a lack of accurate information about what was happening around their performance.
Learning from experience According to some researcher’s experiential learning theory (ELT) has been widely used in management learning research and practice for over thirty-five years. Building on the foundational works of Kurt Lewin, John Dewey and others, experiential learning theory offers a dynamic theory based on a learning series driven by the resolution of the dual tensions of action/reflection and experience/abstraction. These two dimensions state a holistic learning space wherein learning transactions take place between individuals and the environment. The learning space is multi-level and can describe learning and development in appropriate ways at the level of the individual, the group, and the organization. This approach
Kolb & Kolb (2008) defined Experiential learning theory as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience, Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience. According to Kolb’s ELT model, grasping experience portrays two dialectically related modes of grasping such as Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC). On the other hand transforming experience portrays Reflective Observation (RO) and Active Experimentation (AE). According to the four-stage learning cycle depicted in Figure below, immediate or concrete experiences are the basis for observations and reflections. These reflections are assimilated and distilled into abstract concepts from which new implications
Introduction Kolb’s experiential learning theory was published in 1984. This theory is one of most popular theory and especially important place of a formulation of the modernization of Bulgarian education. Kolb also one of the most influential researchers, referring their theory, learning is the process, which knowledge is created through transformation of experience Kolb’s represents a way of constructing, alternation and offer concrete understanding to make course of study to become better and can be taught to have better learning by the students. Different people have a different learning style. Experiential learning theory also involves studying in four phases connected like doing, sensing, observing, reflecting, thinking and planning.
Summary The study was conducted to investigate if greater self-awareness in learning styles affects ones’ performance. To measure learning styles, the author conducted various studies and developed Koh’s Learning Styles Profiler (KLSP). Based on the study conducted, it was seen that there was a positive relationship between learning styles and performance and awareness in learning styles affects academic performance. This is based on the rationale that by understanding one’s learning style; learners would then gain a deeper understanding on their effective learning behaviors to develop strategies to enhance learning performance. Theoretical Perspective(s) The adaptation by Claxton & Murrell (1987) on Curry’s onion model was adopted as a
. As reflected in Dale’s research, the most effective methods involve direct, purposeful learning experiences, such as hands-on or field experience. Whereas, the least effective methods involve learning from information presented through verbal symbols, like, listening to spoken words. Direct purposeful experiences represent reality or the closet things to real, everyday life. The cone charts the average retention rate for various methods of teaching.