This essay will discuss the role of ecological validity in psychological research, drawing on material from the DE100 textbook ‘Investigating Psychology’. It will begin by giving a description of what ecological validity is, and consider it in relation to different examples of research. The research used to discuss the role of ecological validity will be based around social learning and aggression, behaviourism, and memory. Firstly the study of Bandura et al. will be considered, his experiments on children copying violent behaviours using the Bobo doll experiment. Then the Skinner box will be discussed, finally leading to the studies of Loftus and Palmer on the link between language and memory. The role and importance of ecological validity in each body of research will be discussed and evaluated.
Vygotsky also believed that every aspect of a child's cognitive development is dependent on social context. According to Vygotsky's zone of proximal development there are certain activities a child or any person for that matter can only accomplish with the assistance of another individual. In order for a child to master a new skill a mentor must provide scaffolding to help the child. Scaffolding is a temporary support to help the learner master a new task.
When thinking about psychology it is interesting to think about all that has occurred in psychology thus far. Even as Robins, Gosling, and Craik (1999) mentioned there has been many trends that have occurred within psychology, such as, that of psychoanalysis, that of behaviorism, and even that of cognitive psychology. Thinking about all of these trends it can be observed that psychology has had different trends occur and there are probably some gaps that exist between all the trends within psychology. Therefore,
Both Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky believed that children build knowledge through experiences. Piaget believed this occurred through exploration with hands-on activities. Vygotsky, on the other hand, believed that children learn through social and cultural experiences. This process is mediated by the interactions that take place with peers and adults. While collaborating with others through interactions, children learn the traditions, values, beliefs, and language of their culture. For this reason, families and educators ought to supplement children with plenty of social interaction. Vygotsky believed language is an imperative device for thought and assumes a key part in cognitive development. He introduced the
Vygotsky has six assumptions. Vygotsky thinks that its vital that children should be allowed to stretch each day and cognitively during their school day. He thinks that children perform hard tasks with the help of knowledgeable individuals. Vygotsky mentions how mental activities begin as basic social activities, and discuss how the first couple of years of a child’s life is vital for development and it’s when children thought a language becomes independent. He discusses how jobs that children oversee doing can challenge and promote cognitive development growth and develop through informal and formal conversation with adults. And notice how vital of speech in a child’s development. Vytotsky thinks that learning occurs before development and as a child matures their speech becomes more
There are five different types of learning theories, behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, social learning, or constructivism. All of them propose various ways through which learning is realized. However, there is no single set of learning theory, which if followed to the latter can grant a tutor a perfect outcome in the classroom. For many years, the study of learning has resulted in heated debates. It has been at the center of educational psychology. Even though psychologists agree on the significance of learning as a topic of study, they often fail to agree on the mechanics of how the process of learning occurs. Shunk et al. (2012), define learning as "the process of acquiring a relatively permanent change in understanding, attitude, knowledge, information, ability, and skill is
Chapter 5 discuses developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology. Developmental psychology allows us to understand how difficult learning is. The biggest factor of developmental psychology is how mature the cognitive skills of the child are. The process of the child’s cognitive skills take time and if the child isn’t allowed to time properly mature cognitively, the child could be faced with cognitive issues. Every child learns differently and at different rates. This is referred to as developmental variations and they should not be interrupted as long as they are learning and progressing. Students should learn through the stages of learning; exposure, grasping the knowledge, independence, and application. These are
It is transformative and places the learner at risk for change reconstructing the learner’s frame of knowledge (Kegan, 2009). CDT considers that, “…a form of knowing always consists of a relationship or temporary equilibrium between the subject and the object in one’s knowing” (Kegan, 2009, p. 53). Kegan’s constructive-development theory is based on the key ideas of people making sense of the reality in which they live and that they can develop over time with appropriate developmental supports. Kegan’s (2009) theory consist of five stages “of knowing”. The adult stage of “instrumental way of knowing” is primarily self-centered, has high expectations of the teacher, and processes their experiences based on what they will gain from a particular situation. The “socializing way of knowing” learner has developed an improved capacity of reflection. The learner bases their values, ideas, and beliefs on others opinions relying on social relations, validations, and a sense of belonging. Finally, in the stage of “self-authoring way of knowing” the learner has his or her own identity, ideas, and set of values. Learners reflect on and direct their relationships as a critical thinkers not in need of a higher authority for
“Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But since no one was listening, everything must be said again.” – André Gide
Chapter one is about introducing psychology. In this chapter we learn about the the history of psychology and how it came to be. Since psychologists belonging to specific ethnic groups or cultures have the most interest in studying the psychology of their communities, these organizations provide an opportunity for the growth of research on the impact of culture on individual and social psychology. While psychology typically focuses on the immediate causes of behavior based in the physiology of a human or other animal, evolutionary psychology seeks to study the ultimate biological causes of behavior. Other organizations provide networking and collaboration opportunities for professionals of several ethnic or racial groups working in psychology,
one, ‘their learning’. As a teacher it is very important to study about these theories. Because it
Lev Vygotsky and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP), is the belief that students learn from adults who are more advanced
Most of this theory is started by Lev Vygotsky, who was born in Russia in 1896, but unfortunately he died at early age of only thirty-eight. He graduated from University of Moscow, after graduation, he taught literature in secondary school, which experience intensified his interest in how children learn. Most of important parts of Vygotsky theory consist of Scaffolding, MKO (more knowledgeable others), ZPD (zone of proximal development) and Role of Language. Scaffolding means to learn with help and support of others, like parents, tutors, or even peers who know more. These helpful people are called MKO, more knowledgeable others. ZPD is zone of the proximal development. Vygotsky divided children’s knowledge into three sections, respectively are what they can do, what they cannot do and ZPD. Here ZPD is the linking between “can do” and “cannot do”. I t means the potential learning area where children and reach with scaffolding of MKO. The significant part of Vygotsky theory is that he consider not only about children’s mental development, but also the external affection on mental function, which Piaget had missed out. Besides the above concepts, Vygotsky points out that language plays a key role in children’s thought forming. He believes thought is result of language
In its most general sense, Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning developing as a result of the ideas and beliefs shared by a group of people who has influenced educators’ view of learning. The term behavioral psychology refers to a psychological approach which principally concerned with stimulus-response activities and emphasizes the role of environmental factors in a learning process, to the exclusion of own free will. There is a tenet of behavioral psychology that “only observable, measurable, an outward behavior is worth investigating” (Bush, 2006, p. 14). Historically speaking, behaviorism was originated in the 1880s and develops gradually in the twentieth-first century and beyond. Skinner and
The literature reviews in this section will present a description on Variation Theory and Learning Study, and the degree to which the approach are being used in education context. This section will also review literatures that are related to tone value drawing, student learning and teacher development.