First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behaviour to understand behavioural change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioural research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding. As Weitz (2009) remarks, cognitive theory is a theory which is recognised to be implemented instantly. Social cognition is, therefore, the encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing of data in the brain (Parrott and Madoc-Jones, 2008).
It encourages learners to build their own knowledge in order to gain understanding that they may not receive when actively listening in class or reading from a prescribed textbook. “Explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook” (Roy, 2017). The main theorists that propose Constructivism are John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb. Constructivism encourages learners to explore the world around in efforts to gain knowledge on particular subjects, thus forming what is known as Discovery Learning in opposition of the children learning passively. An example of a Constructivist activity that may be executed in the classroom is experimentation.
Assignment 1: Teaching, Learning and Technology Learning refers to the change in the subject behavior to given information brought about by his repeated experience in that situation, provided that the behavior change can not be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation or temporary states of the subject ( Hilgard and Bower) , Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. (Kimble and Garmezy 1963: 133) Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning. Our understanding of how the learner learns will determine our philosophy of education, teaching style, approach, methods and classroom techniques. (Brown
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change or modification in behavior resulting from practice and or exposure conditioning. It could be motor, visual, or conceptual. Learning theories provide a theoretical outline that describes how information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning (Schunk, 2015). In this paper, I will discuss the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism and some principles within these theories that apply to learning like classical and operant conditioning, scaffolding, schemas, situated cognition, Bloom’s taxonomy, as well metacognitive activities. With research findings, we can learn what it takes to use different parts of our brain for different learning theories.
Cognitive psychology believe that learning is a targeted internal process and focus on thinking using brain with active mental process to receive, store, understanding, feeling, organizing and learning takes place when new knowledge is gained or modified through experience. In clinical practice, Cognitive learning theory provides an effective
Another relevant learning theory to address in order to carry out this study is cognitivism. By the end of 1950, learning theories started to change and depart from behaviouristic ideas towards an approach that supported its ideas based on models developed from the cognitive sciences (Snelbecker, 1983). As Bower and Hilgard (1981) pointed out, cognitive theories put emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structures, that is to say, cognitive models focus on the conceptualisation of students’ learning processes and how the input acquired is received, organised, stored, and retrieved by their minds (Ertmer & Newby, 2013). In this case, the process of learning is concerned with what learners know and how they acquire new
He believed in "the development of introspection as a means for studying the mind." (Cognitivism) Though he was not specifically involved in the field of Educational Psychology, he began the study of the mind. Therefore, he is an important name in the history of psychology, educational or otherwise. This study examines the impact of cognitive approach on development of social responsibility in pre-school children. Cognitive education is defined as the application of the findings of cognitive science, including cognitive psychology to education (Haywood, 2004).
INTRODUCTION In the 1970’s, a number of behaviour therapists, who were known to focus purely on observable behaviour, began to reappraise the importance of one’s thoughts, perceptions, evaluations and self statements. They began to view these “private events” as processes that mediate the responses of objective stimulus condition and, therefore, assist in determining behaviour and emotions (Borkovec, 1985; Mahoney & Arnkoff, 1978). For cognitive theorists, human beings have the capacity to be rational or irrational, erroneous or realistic, in their thinking. They subscribe to the view that what people think about their experiences determines how they will feel about them, and ultimately what they do. Therefore, they consider erroneous thinking
LEARNING THEORIES Learning theories are very crucial in a way that they helps by navigating other best ways of learning and teaching. BEHAVIORISM Behaviourism is a learning theory of humans and animals that pays much considerable attention only on objectively observable behaviours. Which could simple mean it relies only on observable behaviour as it disregards other activities of the mind. It came to a point whereby behaviour theorists conduct the experiments. These experiments were conducted regarding the identification of Conditioning as a universal learning process.
To understand this better, it is important that the concept of Social Learning Theory be discussed. Social learning theory is a theory that attempts and aims to explain the purpose of socialization and the effect of such things on the development of individual young people. There are many different theories that explain the concept of socialization. Some of these theories are psychoanalytic theory, conflict theory and symbolic interaction. Thos social learning theory aims at looking and observing each individuals learning process at each stage of their lives and how such people of the society influence the individuals.