Theories of Motivation used in Organisations There are several theories of motivation used by organisations. The following three theories can be applied in the work place; these are Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Skinner’s reinforcement theory. 1.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs theory This theory is a motivation theory developed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow stated that there are basic needs that need to be fulfilled in order for employees to function efficiently, be happy and that managers need to understand the importance of these basic needs (Bagraim, et al., 2012, p. 86). The basic needs identified are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualisation (Erasmus, et al., 2013, pp.
The very concept of motivation is a vast one, but in psychology, it is still not well clarified. Motivation cannot be directly observed and measured and is derived from changes in human behavior over time. Motivation, defined as "all the inner driving forces of man, including desires, drives and efforts and can also be called the inner state of the person who activates or moves it and includes effort, perseverance, and aims”. Motivation is an essential prerequisite for successful management; the desire of man to exercise power. Existing performance is also what managers can evaluate if they want to recognize the wishes and ambitions of the worker (Crossan et al., 1999).
Motivation has to do with set of independent/dependent variable relationships that explains the direction, amplitude, and persistence of an individuals behaviour, holding constant the effect of aptitude, skill and understanding the task contains operating in the environment. (Campbell. Et.al) Self- Deterministic theory is the distinction between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Autonomous motivation is where the individual does a task or an activity on their own interest
Bandura believes that these three work reciprocally, interactively, not one-way. They can be visualized as a triangle with free movement between the 3 sides. As our textbook says, an individual’s confidence that he or she can control his or her success is an example of a person factor: strategies are an example of a cognitive factor. Self-efficacy is an important part of Bandura’s theory. Self-efficacy, according to Bandura, is believing that you can accomplish a certain task or succeed in a certain situation.
Contrary, Theory Y is built from a belief that motivation is intrinsic to the individual. The Theory Y assumes that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility. McGregor’s personal views favored theory Y, and he argued that individuals are in general creative and self-motivated (McGregor,
“Both environments are characterised by adult-defined authority and reward structures. Also, they are both based on ability grouping, normative and social comparisons, and public individual performance.” (De Knop, Theeboom & Weiss, 1995). Harter’s Competence Motivation Theory suggests that provision of reinforcement and positive feedback lead to a heightened sense of self-confidence and perceived competence. This, in turn, leads to greater enjoyment and greater effort in one’s participation in sport. The underlying principle illustrates that high feelings of competence and control lead to enhanced performance and increased motivation.
Maslow's Need-Hierarchy Theory Maslow’s need hierarchy also is one of the famous motivation theory with five instinctive need arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated based on each level of the hierarchy According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs which are physiological, safety and security, belongingness, and self-actualization. Maslow argued that each level must to fulfil before move to another level of the hierarchy. Maslow described the human needs which need to fulfil from the lowest to the highest in the. The provision of these needs changes people or employee behaviour in the task towards achieving organizational objectives. He pointed out that when a set of needs is satisfied, it is no longer able to motivate
They have a propensity for having an enthusiastic viewpoint on human nature. They concentrate on the knack of human beings to meditate deliberately and realistically, so that they can standardize their genetic impulses, and to attain their full potential. In the humanistic interpretation, people are accountable for their survival and engagements and have the independence and will to alter their approaches and demeanor (Staddon, 2001). Abraham Maslow and Humanistic Theory Abraham Harold Maslow (1908 - 1970) is an American psychologist, who is renowned for forming Maslow 's hierarchy of needs, a model of psychological health grounded on satisfying inherent human necessities in precedence, leading towards the self-actualization. Looking at his efforts, he in fact is marked as the father and key supporter of Humanistic Psychology (Goud, 2008).
Theory Y, in contrast, reflects a more modern approach to motivation, in that most people are seen as keen to discipline themselves in order to successfully complete the tasks allocated to them. In addition, they seek responsibility, and are capable of creative problem solving. McGregor regarded Theory Y as a more accurate and realistic portrayal of human behaviour, since it represents the integration of individual and organisational goals. McGregor did, however, recognise that the theory does not offer a complete explanation for employee motivation (McGregor,
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs behavioral theory (Maslow, 1943), of which motivation is a part, and its relationship with volunteer performance is the fundamental focus of this research. Motivation is the art of helping people to focus their minds and energies on doing their work as effectively as possible. Maslow’s behavioral theory, specifically his Hierarchy of Human Needs, was chosen primarily because there are different levels of motivation as well as different levels o f team performance. Maslow adds that under all but exceptional circumstances, an individual strives to satisfy a predictable sequence of needs, beginning with efforts to fulfill physiological needs, followed by effort to fulfill safety, social, ego, and self-realization