Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes. 2. How does DNA replicate itself? In order to replicate itself, DNA undergoes DNA replication, a process in which the DNA unwinds and splits in two. From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA.
Evolution has taken a great toll on the world. It is a major key that has led to many other scientific advancements, and this ripple effect curiously reflects evolution almost in a parallel or fractal manner. There is an aspect of evolution—which has historically been identified as the evolutionary drive by biologist Charles Darwin—most commonly known as natural selection. Natural selection is the concept of all living things that need to survive biologically and genetically adapting to their environments, or otherwise dying off over time. Biologist Richard Dawkins, famous for his advocacy of evolution, wrote the Selfish Gene about a new concept, or theory as some may call it, called the selfish gene.
Cloning means ‘replicating a fragment of DNA placed in an organism so that there is enough to analyze or use in protein production’. This means to create a copy of some existing organism from already matured cells. There are many moral complexities that can be derived from the concept of cloning such as the manufacturing or the evolving of animals, humans, or plant material. There’s a conflict within society with the basic idea of manipulating cells in such a way that you create something. All in all, cloning seems to be a broad field with many varying opinions.
Meiosis goes through the same process I just went through, but instead of being done after cytokinesis the cell goes to another cycle of replication. During the first cycle of replication in meiosis, Prophase is the same but crossing over occurs along side of the nuclear membrane dissolving, chromosomes developing, and the spindle fibers forming. Crossing over is the process in which homologous chromosomes from both parents pair up and exchange DNA. Also during metaphase and anaphase homologous chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite sides. During this second cycle of replication the cells grows through Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, and its final cycle of cytokinesis which is the exact same as during mitosis.
Genetic engineering is changing the DNA code to express different traits. A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA that contains important genetic information. Recombinant DNA is the product after inserting your desired genes. The genes we hoped to insert in the pGLO lab were the GFP gene and the ampicillin resistance gene. GFP was needed so that we would tell if the ampicillin resistance gene had been properly placed when the bacteria glowed under a UV light.
Recent research has shown DNA as a medium for large-scale computation system. One potential key application is DNA based cryptography. A large number of researcher groups take initiative to implement DNA concept in applications like cryptography, scheduling, clustering, forecasting and even trying to apply this in signal and image processing applications . DNA computing is more generally known as molecular computing. Computing with DNA, offers a completely new paradigm for computation.
This can be relate to Darwin’s theory too in which in natural populations, the genetic composition of a population 's gene pool may change over time. Before Darwin 's time, science knew that life evolved, since they saw the fossil and their resemblance to extant life. And many hypotheses had been proposed before Charles Darwin 's idea. Darwin identifying natural selection as the mechanism for
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression uses reversible modifications of DNA and chromatin structure to mediate the interaction of the genome with a variety of environmental factors and to generate changes in the patterns of gene expression in response to these factors. The epigenome refers to the epigenetic state of a cell. During
“...I often asked myself, did the principle of life proceed ? It was a bold question, and one which have ever been considered as a mystery yet …it did not restrain our inquiries” (Shelley). Chimeras are “animals composed of cells that originate from two or more different species”. In order to create a chimera, scientists “introduce cells from one species into the developing embryo or fetus of another” (Carter). In other words, scientists take the DNA from one species and inject into a developing egg of a different species.
Each gene in the gene pool represents a specific trait, for example there is a gene for eye color, hair and less visible traits such as blood types. The genetic distinction exists in the human species of today is a result of four various types of processes of evolution namely mutations, genetic drift, natural selection and gene flow (Scupin and DeCorse
Epigenetics refers to all modifications to genes other than changes in the DNA sequence itself. This modifications include addition of molecules, like methyl groups, to the DNA backbone. Adding these groups changes the appearance and structure of DNA, altering how a gene can interact with important interpreting molecules in the cell 's nucleus.There are different kinds of epigenetic chemical additions to the genetic sequence. The addition of methyl groups to the DNA backbone is used on some genes to distinguish the gene copy inherited from the father and that inherited from the mother. How do this modifications affect the genes?
As Well the nucleus holds the “DNA” of the cell within itself. The nucleus gives the command to either grow, divide or reproduce and has a membrane of its own, the nuclear membrane. Ribosomes: Ribosomes are made of two different parts, the small and large ribosomal subunits. These two subunits are manufactured in the core of the cell, the nucleolus. Once the two parts locate each other they form a complete ribosome.