Cooper & Schindler (2003) identified that two broad research methods are often used across various studies for logical reasoning. Two broad categories of research approaches are deductive approach and inductive approach. Research approach is usually selected by the researcher depending upon the nature of study and its specific requirements. In an inductive approach, the researcher first begins to collect relevant in accordance to the study under discussion. Once a substantial amount of data in the form of previously conducted similar studies, the researcher tries to understand the concepts and looks for patterns that could provide explanation to our identified research problem.
Daniel Riff introduced in his book the major definition and compiled their aspects into his own. He says: “Quantitative content analysis is the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationships involving those values using statistical methods, to describe the communication, draw inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication
It could also be defined as social research that uses empirical methods and empirical statement. Since quantitative research is about collecting numerical data to explain a phenomenon, particular question seem immediately suited to being answered using quantitative method. Quantitative research is a systematic process used to gather and statistically analyze information that has been measured by an instrument. Instruments are used to convert information into numbers. It examines phenomenon through the numerical representation of observations and statistical analysis.
The pre-experimental method was used for two main reasons. The first relates to the cause-and-effect relationship that may be claimed from the investigation. Using a quantitative approach “allows the researcher to focus sharply on causal relations” (Neuman, 2007:201). The second relates to the need to explore many factors potentially influencing L2 writing learning. Independent and dependent variables A variable in quantitative research is “a characteristic or attribute of an individual or an organization that can be measured or observed and that varies among the people or organizations being studied” (Creswell, 2009:50).
Delimitations factors includes the choices of objective ,research questions , perspective that you adopted, variables of interests and population you choose to investigate. The problem of choice that one chooses is the first delimitation itself. This means you had other related problems that you could have chosen but decide to screen them off and took one from many. PERSONAL ASPECT Delimitations as one the concepts in research are of vital purpose. It guides you so that you don’t derail from what you intend to do it explains or defines on why you carrying on such a study so that one does not lose track of its purpose.
Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying (original) reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research.
This course has taught me that these statistics can involve the following, hypothesis development and testing, selection of appropriate statistical tests, and evaluating statistical results. This paper will explore the two types of statistics and
According to Neuman (2014), “A positivist approach implies that a researcher begins with a cause-effect relationship that he/she logically derives from a possible causal law in general theory and logically links the abstract ideas to precise measurement of the social world.” This type of orientation tests hypotheses by carefully analysing numbers from the measures. With this said, I thought this epistemological orientation is appropriate for my proposal because I want to find a relationship between variables and how one impacts or influences the
CHAPTER 4 4.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter will be discusses in great length about the research methods that had been used in order to obtained both primary and secondary data in this study and explain in detail about approach undertaken as the research methodology to complete this enquiry. In decree to obtain good result and run across the objectives as planned, the right and suitable methodology needs to be used. Methodology is a method to determine the approach applied to direct the study or research. The objectives of this study will to be achieved by using two methods. The first method is through literature review, which is to gather information about the studied topic.
Research Methodology 5.1 Research Design The research topic in discussion intends to implement a positivistic methodology, this means that it aims to “perceive reality (the object of analysis), the creation of knowledge, and the structure and nature of research” (Sarantakos, 2013: 33). This research will as a result employ methods such as empiricism. It will be then adhered to by the ontological approach of objectivism. This sums up the quantitative methodology that will be used. 5.2 Empirical