Since the discovery of luxurious non-European goods and their prosperous economic nature, European intervention outside of Europe steadily increased focused by the motives of “god, glory, and gold.” European systematically discovered each inch of the globe and thus created inevitable circumstances of interaction between Europeans and non-Europeans lasting from late 1700s to early 1900s. European attitudes toward this interaction greatly varied due to intellectual and cultural European trends that greatly altered their own point of view. Early interactions were guided by widely accepted Enlightenment ideals that expected individualism and tolerable thus creating an attitude of awe and respect from the Europeans to non-Europeans.
“Chile, province fertile and marked / in the famed region of Antarctica / by remote nations respected / for its strength, nobility, and power” is part of the poem La Araucana, written by Alonso de Ercilla Zúñiga and considered as the first work of literature in Chile. Spanish soldier, he wrote his epic poem while he spent two years in Chile during the colonial period in the 16th Century. As other dimensions in Chilean social, economic, and cultural life, literature has also been heavily influenced, in one hand, by the European heritage, mainly coming from the Spanish colonization; and, in the other hand, by the political, cultural, and economic relevance of the Catholic church in Chilean colony, first, and throughout its whole history, later, with ups and downs depending of trends regarding secularization or radical political movements, too.
Grell’s and Porter’s Toleration in Enlightenment Europe focuses on “the ambiguities, limits, fluctuations … [and] the extension of toleration in the Enlightenment.” The book addresses ideas of Voltaire, Locke, Montesquieu as well as other writers, who, maybe less known, contribute significantly to this concept. Theory and practice differed greatly, as shown by examples of ideas of enlightened thinkers and several rulers in 17th and 18th century Europe. Grell and Porter (2000) though the demand to reform it was present. Locke stated that “man was born free and under universal law in state of Nature”.
Traditionally, "The Enlightenment" has been associated with France, America, and Scotland rather than Britain, which, strangely enough, is thought not to have had an Enlightenment to speak of. Roy Porter effectively upsets this view in Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World. Porter's general concern is with "the interplay of activists, ideas, and society," and to this end he examines innovations in social, political, scientific, psychological, and theological discourse. The key figures (the "enlightened thinkers") read like a Who's Who of the 17th and 18th centuries--Newton, Locke, Bernard de Mandeville, Erasmus Darwin, Priestley, Paine, Bentham, and Britain's "premier enlightenment couple" Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin, as well as the men who helped popularize and disseminate their ideas, such as Addison, Steele, Defoe, Pope, and Sterne. The book is peppered with brilliant quotes, and although it covers such vast ground in a rapid and sometimes breathless manner, Porter just about manages to hold it all together.
The Enlightenment was mainly influenced by the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century. The revolution has brought the fresh outlook of the world to the public by various scientific discoveries. The enlightenment thinkers advocate the people to use the scientific and rational point of view. It was used to understand and interpret the natural laws of the world through the human reasons rather than the supernatural action. It was made more educated Europeans to increase the acceptance of the scientific views on the physical world.
During the time between 1500 and 1914 the creation of a new modern society surfaced, it emerged from the intersection between scientific, French, and industrial revolution. All of which took shape initially in western Europe. The societies in Europe sparked new ideologies throughout the world for the past several centuries, people start believing in social equality and the the poverty is within reach, ordinary citizen can participate in political life, women can be equal to men, and slavery can be abolished. The growing ability of these modern societies to exercise power and influence changes from one empire to another and also they intersect in certain areas. Europeans were clearly the dominant players in the atlantic world, and their societies
The enlightenment was an intellectual movement resulting from scientific advances, and it applies critical thought and reasoning to everything, including political systems and its relationship to religion, particularly Christianity. During the enlightenment, ideas were spread and shared more easily due to an increased literacy of the people and because of the invention of the printing press, making it easier to make and distribute newspapers, thus information, to the people. One of the leading personalities during the enlightenment was a man named Voltaire, he was a judge, and was critical of the French government and its absolutism. One of his publications was called “Letters Concerning the English Nation”. He states that the “Social Contract”,
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Europe was experiencing a changing of the guard at the hands of the philosophes, a group of social reformers from the nobility and middle class. Branded by the philosophes as an intellectual movement advocating for the application of reason and individualism in all aspects of life, the Enlightenment, influenced by the ideas of the Scientific Revolution, sparked discussion in the hopes of bettering society and rounding it into its most ideal form. Although it was a truly international and cosmopolitan movement, one of its most important proponents was the French philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), author of works such as Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind and The Social Contract. Rousseau epitomized the Enlightenment and its core ideas, that individual liberty should be of utmost importance and government and religion should fulfill the needs of the general will.
How did we discover gravity? What inspired the creation of the world’s first great democracy? What gave way to Romanticism? These questions were all answered in the eighteenth century, during the European Enlightenment. The European Enlightenment, also known as the “Age of Reason” or “the light of reason”, took it’s name from the idea it represented.
Romanticism was an artistic movement that gave special importance to emotions. Writers of the romantic period focused mostly on nature. They emphasized on new emotions, like terror, surprise and grief. The era marked literature because authors started to see nature from another perspective, and found a sort of "dark beauty". Writers were more passionate and emotional, as compared to previous ones.