Dc Motor Research Paper

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Illustrate the operating principles of a permanent magnet DC motor

Introduction
A DC motor is a simple electromagnetism that converts mechanical energy to produce electrical energy. It relies basely on the fact that like magnet poles repels and unlike magnetic poles attracts each other. A coil of wire with a current running through it, and induces magnetic field generates aligned with the center of the coil.

Theory of a DC motor
When the current flow through a circuit with electrons, it induces a magnetic field around it. Thus this will results in a movement called the motoring actions.
Fleming’s Left hand Rule tells us that
• Thumb represents the direction of the thrust on the conductor
• Forefinger represents the direction of the magnetic
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A mechanical force will be experienced by the conductor and the direction of this force is governed by Fleming's Left Hand Rule.

As in a permanent magnet DC motor, the armature is placed inside the magnetic field of permanent magnet; the armature rotates in the direction of the generated force. Here each conductor of the armature experiences the mechanical force F = Magnetic force x Length x Current flowing through the circuit, comes under the magnetic field. Each conductor of the armature experiences a force and the compilation of those forces produces a torque, which tends to rotate the armature.

The function of the electromagnet is to switch the polarity of the magnets as the current flows, keeping the motor running. The permanent magnet DC motor is used in applications that are high in power.

The working principle of Permanent Magnet DC motor

Brush DC motor and Brushless DC motor

A brushed DC motor is an internally commutated electric motor designed to be run from a direct current power
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For this reason the rotor is made of armature core, that’s made with several low-hysteresis silicon steel laminations. Therefore, magnetic losses, like eddy current loss, can be reduced. These laminated steel sheets are stacked together to form the cylindrical structure of the armature core.
The armature core are provided with slots made of the same material as the core to which the armature winding made with several turns of copper wire distributed uniformly over the entire periphery of the core. The slot openings a shut with fibrous wedges to prevent the conductor from plying out due to the high centrifugal force produced during the rotation of the armature, in presence of supply current and field. The commutator of dc motor is a cylindrical structure made up of copper segments stacked together, but insulated from each other by mica. Its main function as far as the dc motor is concerned is to commute or relay the supply current from the mains to the armature winding housed over a rotating structure through the brushes of dc

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