As argued by many scholars that the East India Company had the notion of utilitarianism in Britain which was reflected when they came to India and try to change it. John Wilson in his article “Anxieties of Distance: Codification of Early colonial Bengal” argued that though British try to change Indian Law, they don’t understand Indian Law. They decided to simplify into laws that are universally applicable. He also argued that utilitarianism is not reflected in English law so why would they want to change Indian law on utilitarian basic. But, in reality the east India Company came to India to trade.
As a result of the Anglo-French War (1756-1763) and its financial costs conflict was created between Britain and American colonists. To the British, their American lands were used largely to provide raw materials to Britain and be the consumers of British manufactured goods. This would result in capital and profit to aid their country. The British passed many laws and acts in the colonies which created a large build-up of resentment by the British Colonists. Tension was created by these acts that would have a big impact on the start of the American War of Independence.
China was forced to cede Hong Kong, a densely populated island city in south China, to British rule. China also had to pay indemnity to the British. As a result of the first Opium War, China not only suffered more economic decline but also saw further opium addiction among its people. Very quickly, the economy of China experienced a breakdown of self-sufficiency in the traditional system of agriculture and craftsmanship. China was contrained to fight in its own defence to end the opium trade and to revert the unequal effects of the Nanjing Treaty.
By 1857, the British, through the East India Company, directly ruled two thirds of India. The remaining third was overseen by Indian princes who paid tribute to the British. The British not only dominated the Indian economy, sending profits back to Britain: they also imposed their values on the Indian people by preventing Indian
While Doyle shrewdly weaves cockney into The Sign of Four, Stevenson's tale attempts to represent an evolving and unstable dialect of English generally known as Pidgin. In fact, the author's transparency is evident in his successful reproduction of the Pacific's trading language. Both of our intriguing stories highlight the fundamental interconnectedness which arose from trade and imperial expansion. On the one hand, British personnel were supposed to be ambassadors of British virtues and to remain faithful them regardless of the length of their deployment. As a result of their increasing distance from home, various people inevitably abandoned these values.
This was clear in the participation in the non-importation campaign which supported home consumption. As the debate addressing the crown on the 12th and 11th of October 1779 approached Grattan emerged as the one of the leading patriots. The Patriots and the Volunteers took up free trade as a demand for commercial reform. The patriot leadership put increasing pressure on administration to meet the demand for commercial concessions. One of the actions taken was the threat on imminent financial chaos by approving a six month rather than a two month money bill.
Not until the 1980s most governments imposed market restricting regulations and intervened deeply in their states domestic economy. It was in the mid 1980s that governments such as the Sub-Saharan African countries, China, India, Mexico, Latin America decided to rejoin the global trade system and open their markets to foreign competitors. This was because they felt that GATT was bias so through the united union they created new international trade rules that will be more efficient and beneficial towards industrialization in developing countries. Before the First World War, independent developing countries and those under colonial powers believed in liberal trade policies and exported their agricultural products to developed industrialized countries
Other local industries also suffered some decline, and India underwent de-industrialization. The Indian handicrafts which were renowned world over, collapsed under the colonial rule due to the competition posed by the machine made goods that were imported from Britain. The ability of mass production of goods helped Britain to flood the Indian markets with cheap products especially cotton textiles. Further, the railways facilitated the reach of these goods to remotest parts in India and the procurement of raw materials from these parts. The traditional handicrafts industry also faced a tough competition from these goods produced in bulk.
Soon after the end of Great Rebellion of 1857, when British crown executed its direct rule over the subcontinent, British made an attempt to regulate the Indian economy and manipulated the local industries especially the local textile production and sales market. British swapped the export of finished good with the export of agricultural raw materials including but not limited to jute, cotton tea, wheat, oil seeds and started importing finished goods from the Britain. Moreover the colony was required to transfer the capital to Britain on annual basis in the label of so-called home charges. That capital was used to earn via excess Indian export of raw materials. By the end of 19th century, the home charges reached the amount of between seventeen and eighteen million pounds (Jalal and Bose, pp.
HOW URDU ENCOUNTERED ENGLISH Urdu encountered English when the British came to India. The relationship between the sub-continent and the British started in the beginning of seventeenth century when East India Company was established in the sub-continent with its much broader vision and long term goals to rule the sub-continent so they had the entire India in view. When the British came to India, both English and Urdu were influenced by each other. In the later years, Muslim empire became very weak. The Mughal Empire collapsed owing to its own inefficiency, internal strife, uprising of the anti-Muslim forces and the criminal negligence to develop the naval forces and strengthening of rule in the coastal areas.