As WW I saw the large-scale use of non-conventional chemical weapons, it was expected that WW II would see more extensive use of biological weapons. During this war, many countries conducted research programmes to develop bio-weapons; the Japanese programme to produce a bio-weapon, was considered as the most ambitious (1892-1959). The research in this direction started in 1928; when Lieutenant general (Lt. Gen.) Ishii visited many European and American countries to learn useful techniques and information about the possible uses of biological weapons. Upon returning to his homeland, he was provided a substantial grant in order to constitute a massive bioweapons research centre, known as the Unit 731, located at Beiyinhe in Manchuria. The research centre staffed over 3,000 scientists, mainly microbiologists.
Individual Psychology (Adlerian) Therapy Case Conceptualization: Billy Sunday Individual psychology, born out of examination and divergence from Freudian theoretical tenants, is an approach dating back to the early part of the 1900’s (Corey, 2017). Alfred Adler, the founder of the individual psychology model, spent significant time and energy evaluating and supporting psychoanalytical doctrines; after abandoning many of the psychoanalytic principles he formed of his own school of therapy in 1911 (Tan, 2011). Rudolph Dreikurs continued to influence this theory after Adler’s death and to expand its’ use in the United States (Tan). This newly emerging school of thought introduced new insights to the view of human nature and ensuing counseling methodologies. Alder viewed the past as the means through which people approached the present.
The idea of nothing really being neutral in creation brings up some good discussion when thinking about Japan’s experience. The question about whether technology is good, evil, or neutral can really be applied in this situation. Was it evil that guns were brought into Japan, and was it a good thing that the country actually went away from guns for a few centuries? It appears that when guns were introduced into Japan the harmonious culture was disturbed, and after the usage deteriorated, the country began to flourish again. While this seems to be the situation, I believe that the nature of technological developments depends more on an individual’s worldview and beliefs, opposed to the actual object
It was Dr Paul Klemperer and his colleagues who found the medical term as “Collagen Disease” which later was changed through the modern classification of Lupus as the autoimmune disorder. In 1949 Dr Philip Hench at the Mayo Clinic demonstrated that a newly demonstrated that a new demonstrated hormone called Cortisone was used to treat Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients and it also showed a dramatic result in saving lives. In the 1950 the Lupus Erythematous Cell shown to be part of the (Antinuclear Antibody) reaction which directly led to development of the series of tests for antibodies which led the doctors and researchers know about about the disease in a wider manner. The tests which detect the antibodies which attack the nucleus cells are called “Fluorescent Tests”- Antinuclear
With this turning point, anti-tobacco research gained steam and by the mid-1950s leading figures in medical science “now argued that the evidence was clear, convincing, and scientifically persuasive” (156). Yet in the face of this evidence while cigarette consumption lowered it still remained. Examining these chapters, the argument expertly crafted by Peiss can be summed up: Americans have been so fully indoctrinated by the marketing from tobacco companies and addicted to the substance they peddle that despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many continued to smoke. Today, that issue is still prevalent. Even with science and medicine proving without a shadow of a doubt the connection between cigarettes and disease, the
Who is Edward Jenner and what did he accomplish? Edward Jenner created the cure for smallpox, a deadly disease back in the late 18th century. Jenner was elected as Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences along with being appointed as the Physician Extraordinary for King George Ⅳ( “Edward Jenner Facts”). He is now known as the “Father of Immunology” because he conducted experiments during his lifetime that not only cured one of the deadliest diseases at the time, but made large scientific advancements in doing so (“History - Edward Jenner”). Edward Anthony Jenner was born on May 17th, 1749.
Mental health has traditionally been a state responsibility, but after World War II there was increased lobbying for a federal (national) initiative. Attempts to create a National Neuropsychiatric Institute failed. Robert H. Felix, then head of the Division of Mental Hygiene, orchestrated a movement to include mental health policy as an integral part of federal biomedical policy. Congressional subcommittees hearings were held and the National Mental Health Act was signed into law in 1946. This aimed to support the research, prevention and treatment of psychiatric illness, and called for the establishment of a National Advisory Mental Health Council (NAMHC) and a National Institute of Mental Health.
This results in academic opinion leaders delivering company-approved presentations, marketing their medications to colleagues and medical peers, 'in the guise of medical education ' (Freedman et al., 2009). The irony is that those in the field of psychiatry, who contribute to conflict of interest may not be in a position to perceive it as such. Various policies have been established during the past 60 years that exist to protect study participants. These policies have been put in place especially for those who are mentally ill or diseased. But is this
For example, words such as “surgery”, “schooled”, “star signs”, “source”, “sick”, “send”, “superfluity”, “study”, “silk”, “saved”, and “start” are seen throughout the passage. These words imply contradictions because the narrator describes the doctor as a doctor of “medicine and surgery” (ln 415), but then immediately explains he is “schooled well in astrology” (ln 416). The first description establishes credibility that the doctor studies medicine and can treat patients. But this characteristic is contradicted when explained the doctor studied astrology. In a similar way, the “star signs govern[ed] his patient” (ln 420), but “he saved what he earned in pestilences” (ln 444).
Changes in North American psychiatry over the past few centuries have proved vast and far-reaching. The emergence of new mental disorders, technological innovation, biological discoveries, and mass deinstitutionalization were only but a few of the changes to the mental health field. What is most striking historically is how attitudes regarding mental illness have evolved over time– existing once as something that both public and professionals took great strides to hide that has now gone mainstream in the modern world. By looking at the history of psychiatric institutions, a connection between these two evolutions can be drawn. This paper will analyze how the changing attitudes towards mental illness shaped the practice, processes and policies
In The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Rebecca Skloot presents the scientific progression of HeLa cells with study cases, such as the study of viruses and the development of the polio vaccine, in order to prove to the reader that HeLa was beneficial towards science and was not illegal in any ethical way. Polio is an infectious viral disease that affects the central nervous system. The year 1950, a year before Henrietta Lacks died, was the peak of the polio
Henry Ford and his invention: The Assembly Line was one of the most important chapters in the 20th century, and one of the great leaps of the Industrialization. Before 1913, Ford has already been looking for ways to improve the production number of his best-selling Model T, in order to reduce the production cost and so to lower the price and be able to sell it in great numbers. To building the predecessor of Model T, the Model N, the process required parts of the automobile to be arranged beforehand, put the under-construction car on a skid and slowly dragged it down the line as they work and finish the car step by step. In which, the working hour required by the construction of each car became unsatisfactory. In 1913, Henry Ford invented the first assembly line for mass-production of automobiles, inspired by the continuously-flowing procedures of manufacturing from other fields, especially food and clothing products.
Civilians later on got the vaccine in 1945. Today, the developers of the flu shots know that there are different types of flu, and to get the vaccine, doctors have to make an educated guess and create a vaccine that they think will work for the year. There are one hundred forty two influenza centers in the world and they collect data on the flu, monitor strains and then relay their data to one of the five world health organizations. There are also different types of vaccines for the different hemispheres. The flu shot is the only vaccine that is continually being updating because influenza is a rare type of virus that is constantly
Amid Alexander Fleming 's Nobel discourse he said, "After I finished my research, biochemist Dorothy Crawfort Hodkin used x-rays to determine the atomic structure and molecular shape of penicillin. " (Fleming,2)Dr. C.G. Paine, dermatologist Albert Nutt were two famous doctors who used Hodkin’s research to develop several startling cures with the new substance as early as 1930 (Krebs,23) All of the fresh out of the box new research and the newfound properties of penicillin brought these new anti biotics which cured maladies that were very common, which balanced out various sorts of microbes.The life expectancy of the urban population increased by 3 years. (Lofgren,2)Hospitals in the cities were able to treat patients quicker and reduce medical costs. (Lofgren,3) This shows that people were healthier, hospitals had more money to spend on other things and that people could be treated of their illnesses easily.
The United States was certainly changing in many ways. The 1920s brought many great inventions and improved technology in astounding ways! Advents in medical technology included: the Band-Aid, insulin injections, and penicillin. Diabetes was considered to bring certain death before the invention of insulin. Penicillin was one of history’s greatest medical advances, and beginning the age of antibiotics.