W.H. Auden once said, “The truly tragic kind of suffering is the kind produced and defiantly insisted upon by the hero himself so that, instead of making him better, it makes him worse.” This suffering is what makes a tragic hero, along with other criteria. As is common in all tragedies, Antigone by Sophocles contains a very obvious tragic hero. Of the many characters, two stand out with similar flaws, Antigone and Creon. They are both flawed in their excessive pride, or hubris.
The notion of challenging the state and more importantly, those in authority has not been a prevalent form of action in society. The principal reason can be attributed to the complex theme of “civic versus personal loyalties” (Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). This theme has been an essential part of human civilization and Sophocles illuminates this in his renowned play, Antigone. Within the play, Antigone as a representative of the private persons comes into direct conflict with public power. Her audacity to correct the irrationalities that violate her moral code displays those in society who are willing to feud with the state.
As related earlier, catharsis aims to elicit pity and fear in order to purge such emotions from the audience. As such, the tragic hero’s punishment must not be considered entirely deserved otherwise it would be seen as justice and the cathartic effect would not take place. Instead, the punishment must be somewhat excessive so that pities the tragic hero for his misfortune as well as fears for their own lives after seeing the world is not always fair. However, in order to confirm that Oedipus’ punishment exceeds his crime, both must be identified. Oedipus’ crime is quite simply his attempt to escape his own fate.
Both stories present villains differently, where society is directly criticizing Meursault’s beliefs and actions in The Stranger while Meursault is indirectly hurting Harun in The Meursault Investigation. However, both text function similarly by triggering the protagonists emotions, creating a sympathy towards them. In The Stranger, Meursault is perceived by society as being inhuman with no place in their society but through Meursault 's perspective, society
Greek tragedy, according to M.H. Abrams, is a representation of serious action which results to a disastrous conclusion for the protagonist. Aristotle, on the other hand, also argues that tragedy involves a hero, a man or a woman, who is more moral than we are. He or she goes through reversals of fortune from joy to suffering because of his own tragic flaw called hamartia which is the error of judgment or his own hubris which is pride. Tragedy fills the reader's emotions with pity and fear as the tragic hero is judged unequally and is stricken by misfortune which he does not truly deserve.
Stoicism is selflessness and epicureanism is selfishness. In the play Julius Caesar the philosophies of stoicism and epicureanism are highlighted throughout the play, in which we see how it influences the characters, Brutus and Cassius when they kill Caesar and eventually die for those beliefs. The beliefs stoicism and epicurean play an important part in the play Julius Caesar. These beliefs are the ones who help in Brutus’s and Cassius’s decision making. Brutus ideals follow the ways of stoicism.
William Shakespeare's play Othello uses irony to present the central message that reputation is not an accurate evaluation of one’s character, for manipulation is very prevalent throughout the plot. Varying types of irony are used as Othello, Emilia, and Desdemona all are not able to grasp reality with the information that is presented to them. Iago takes away what is truly occurring to improve his own standings while shattering others. Emilia was unaware of her husband's intention to sabotage as she exclaimed, “I tell you, it makes my husband so unhappy, you’d think it was his own cause”(Shakespeare 155). Furthermore, on a superficial level dramatic irony was used as Emelia was blind to Iago being the cause of the predicament.
“I myself am made entirely of flaws stitched together with good intentions” by Augusten Burroughs. Death of a salesman is written by Arthur Miller, The play is about this man named Willy who has a really big tragic flaw and tries to make his sons the same way that he is which is him being insecure. Willy’s tragic flaw makes himself insecure and wants his sons’ to listen to him meanwhile he’s going crazy. Willy’s intensity is demonstrated in his prideful behavior. Claims that he is “vital” in the New England when in reality he is not a good salesman (4).
It is this construction that causes tragedy: Edmund’s evil motivation originates from his bastard identity, which subordinates him only because his identity is not assigned in the present order. Lear, upset by Cordelia because he loves her too much, recognizes his love incorrectly, regarding the flattery as the real love because flattery meets the demand of stoicism. Such is the paradox of stoicism: it opposes flattery but its emphasis on social status makes the real expression impossible. Shakespeare deliberately brings Cordelia to death, breaking up with the original history, the end of the play thus does not resolve or reaffirm the present order, rather engender chaos. Such an end shows that the stoicism, or the social convention, is the illusion for human to suspend the truth of bodily
If we try to understand the context in which the philosopher is writing his analysis of tragedies, we understand the idea that for instance, as he mentions that violent scenes bring about feelings which are crucial in the making of a good tragedy. Yet, as Rorty brings to light, the way a plot is narrated would differ according to its genre in order to fulfill its function. For example, a tragedy is indeed a depiction of historical events. Yet, the contrast between a historical narration and a tragedy is the way it is narrated and portrayed. The feelings of pity and fear as brought forward by the Aristotle would also depends according to the audience, since feelings are subjective.