2.2 Explanation of failure of structure due to seepage failure. All earth filed dam have the problems of seepage . And seepage resulting from water slowly through the structure of dam as well as its foundation . And it is a very big problem because it can fail the whole dam or structure which can destroy the nearby forest area and villages in frame of flood.
A little downpour of rain may also cause serious water logging problems in the study area. • Drainage system: It is the main reason behind water logging in the study area according to 71% of the respondents. Poor performance of operation and management of drainage system is responsible for water logging. • Population growth: According to 53% of the respondents, rapid population growth is another cause of water logging. Unplanned filling of land to develop new residential areas, uncontrolled and haphazard disposal of solid wastes and garbage into pits and rivers with unauthorized construction leads to disappear the proper drainage
Naturally occurring events, such as erosion and flooding, also contribute to the permeation of the harmful chemicals produced by mining operations into water reservoirs .The water that children and families must drink from, as well as numerous public restrooms, have been affected by contamination and don’t contain the proper water to keep them sanitary. Although this issue does not affect the urban areas of Papua New Guinea as much as it does to the rural areas, the issue is still prominent within the whole country. In rural areas, 70% of households receive their water from unsanitary locations, such as rivers, streams, and ponds, and only 2.5% have a flushing toilet (“PEIN Country Profile and Virtual Environment Library - Papua New Guinea”). Considering the fact that most of the country is rugged and inaccessible, however, it is not too shocking that there would be a lack in underground water pipes. On top of all that, a lot of the food that farmers produce also ends up getting contaminated due to the farmers using contaminated soil and water to grow their crops (Fisher).
According to Jackson (2011) prolonged rainfall is the most common cause of flooding. Preventing flood is necessity because it has negative impacts like damaging property to even taking lives. It can also transport some sediment to other places that can pollute the habitats of wildlife. If the floods are to make their way into urban areas it may cause to interrupt traffic, constrain drainage and cause electrical problem. According to a study about the Flood hazard in Metro Manila (2000) it will take decades to complete the construction of flood control due to inefficient management, lack of political will of government officials, unwise spending of resources and confusion over inter-agency cooperation on flood mitigation.
So as I said before all of the above are provoked by us. Lets talk about sewage, in our houses the production of wastewater can cause pollution in lakes and rivers because it often contains faeces, urine and laundry waste. Our second point is marine dumping which can cause several issues specially to marine life; items such as 6-pack ring packaging can get caught in animals and as a result death. Other things that can cause problems are Newspaper; which takes 6 weeks to degrade,
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Water pollution is a large set of undesirable effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater that caused by human activities. This matter requires urgent attention, since water is scarce and such an important resource needs detailed scientific research all over the world in order to sustain and protect the water resource from pollution and for its wise utilization. However, no water in nature is absolutely clean. Even as it rains, the precipitation is interact with solid dissolved salts and aerosols in the air prior to reaching the ground, running on the surface and finally percolating through the different geological formations. The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural and there are also other sources of water pollution like petroleum, radioactive substances and heat.
With the development of modern industry and agriculture, water pollution is becoming a serious question. A number of industrial facilities and inadequate sewage equipment led to the sewage discharged in to rivers, agricultural use pesticide and through the soil in to river, excessive deforestation cause soil erosion and the domestic sewage of house hold, etc..many river and lakes are not suitable for human life and the groundwater is also polluted. The Amazon in Americans, the Nile in Africa, the Yangtze in Asia and so on are in varying degrees by pollution. Because the reason that the water is irreplaceable and limited, if they are polluted, it will caused the water been getting fewer. The rapid growth of world population also become one of the reason of water shortage.
Water pollution also threatens mankind in a more direct way by mean of flooding. Flooding, according to the Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management of Trinidad and Tobago (ODPM, 2015) is caused when “Oftentimes, garbage that is not properly disposed enters into drainage systems and clogs drains.” The result of flooding is always negative as water damage can scale from property damage to loss of life. The scale and sheer devastation during and at the aftermath of flooding can catch the very protective services tasked with tackling
The two major causes of flood are natural and man-made. Some of the natural causes are heavy rainfall and overflowing of the flood ways that leads to continuous flooding. Also, flooding can’t only bring severe damage to the structures, it can also kill trees and herbal plants that we need in our lives (Devalsam, 2011). Lu (2012) stated that large area of soil looses certain amount of topsoil because of two reasons, first is erosion and the other is heavy flooding. Flood causes some amount of topsoil to lose.
Also, there are two main modes of solid waste collection system in Nigeria namely door-to-door/house-to-house and communal. Even today people still resort to unscrupulous methods of disposing solid waste such as: dumping into gutters, drains, roadside among others. Therefore, solid waste management should be the primary responsibility of all but not only the management authorities like the government and the Local Governments (Felix, 2010).However, the KEPA is challenged by factors such as inadequate funds to support waste management, inadequate equipment to support waste storage, collection and disposal, low collection coverage