It suggests conceptual knowledge is similar to using tools which needs the understanding of the context where it is being used. The notion encourages that learning should be presented through realistic situations where problems are complex in nature like practitioners have in their field. As such, it allows learners to develop their understanding in an authentic setting, through social interaction with appropriate scaffolding. Thus, the significant element of situated cognition is providing authentic problem-based tasks, which is often collaborative in
And Stern (1983), had stated that learning outcomes are much influenced by learning process, and the learning process is affected by the learners’ internal characteristics and learning conditions and learning environment. As Wenden (1987a:7-8) says “Learning strategies are the different operations that learners use in order to make sense of their learning”. According to Wenden (1987a), language learning strategies can be explained from the aspect of language learning behaviors, such as learning and regulating the meaning of a second or foreign language, cognitive theory, such as learners’ strategic knowledge of language learning, and the affective view, such as learners’ motivation, attitude, etc. It is argued that three points of views can improve language learning. O’Malley, Chamot and their colleagues (Chamot & O’Malley, 1987; O’Malley et al., 1985a) were assigned to studying the use of learning strategies by ESL learners in the US.
This is because changes in the behavior of students is the impact on students ' thinking process. This theory focuses on the process of knowing and acquiring knowledge through information processing by means of discussion, reasoning, problem solving and brainstorming activities. This theory is also closely associated with the process of storing information. A psychological cognitivism said that learning involves the use of memory, motivation and thinking and therefore software designers must consider the materials for learning should ensure that there are activities for the various learning styles10. In addition, the teaching strategies should highlight important information and content to enhance the learning process.
This approach to language teaching according to David Nunan is characterized by the following features: 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. To introduction of authentic texts into learning situation. 3.
Constructivism Theory Constructivism is a theory where knowledge and learning are interact. For some people, constructivism is a learning theory, and the other states that constructivism is a theory of knowledge. In the other hand, a criticisms state that constructivism is not a theory of teaching but it is about theory of learning (MacKinnon & Scarff-Seatter, 1997). Constructivism is a learning theory where in learning-teaching process the students be more active and use their own knowledge and also their experience to understand what the teachers gave for them. Constructivism theory also can define as generative learning that creates a meaning from what the students learn.
In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed that processes influence the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how learners receive, perceive, store and retrieve
Willingness to communicate which is new to individual differences research in SLA is connected with motivation. It is originally investigated in L1 Communication research, willingness to communicate pertains to the predisposition towards talkativeness that learners produce in the classroom and also potentially outside the classroom. As such it is the behavioral intent that can cause actual communicative behavior (MacIntyre, Clement, Dornei, & Noels, 1998). According to MacIntyre, Burns, and Jessome (2011), willingness to communicate approaches multiple dimensions for learner’s experiences. In the L2 classroom, not only task type and topic but also classroom interactional patterns, and interlocutors may affect learners’ willingness to communicate may be affected by (Cao, 2011).
Psychologist Jean Piaget believed children develop knowledge through active participation in learning, and cognitive development was “achieved through observation and experimentation”. Cognitive development proposed people are incapable of mechanically understanding information given, and need to construct knowledge through personal understandings to create mental images. Consequently, the teacher plays and important role in learning, and should motivate learner to create own knowledge through personal experiences (Rummel, 2008), by encouraging learner to share knowledge through own ideas, opinions and conclusion through interaction. Lectures, discussions and imitations presented in a systematic and organized manner, reinforce behavior positively and negatively, toward guiding the learner through direct instructions to assess repetitive and interpretive learning. Overall, the design of the components has great influence on how learners perceive mechanisms of teaching presence, based on the individuals understanding through personal experiences.
- The role of the teacher is that of facilitator and guide. Therefore, students are encouraged to construct meaning through genuine linguistic interaction with others. To sum up, communication language teaching can help students to use the target language as much as possible. This approach places great emphasis on helping students create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures. As mentioned above, my personal language teaching methodology may be described as a mixed method.
It assists my learners in learning and helps in identifying their strengths and weaknesses. It helps me to decide what information or skills students still need to learn. Basically, it drives the next instruction. I have also noticed that assessment is totally class specific. What might work for one batch would not work for another.