Declarative Knowledge In Learning

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Structural knowledge is a knowledge of how concepts in a content domain are structurally related which assist comprehension and learning (Beissner et al, 1993). According to constructivist perspective, knowledge is constructed through active engagement of learner in learning rather than passive receiving the body of knowledge. The use of visual organizers as a teaching and learning strategy assist in acquiring knowledge through active involvement of learners in knowledge construction and interpretation. The literature (e.g., Kang, 2004) that believe in the use of visual organizers as an effective tools in language learning stated, the spatial representation of structural knowledge or information help learners to compensate their limitation…show more content…
Two types of knowledge is identified in psycholinguistics; declarative and procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge represent awareness of objects, events or ideas which is regarded as schemas. Procedural knowledge; on the other hand, describes how learners use their declarative knowledge. It entails the interrelating of schemas in to patterns (Jonassen, Beissner & Yacci, 1993). Structural knowledge is an intermediate type of knowledge that mediates the transition of declarative in to procedural knowledge and facilitate the application of procedural knowledge (Diekhoff, 1983). Structural knowledge is a knowledge of relationships between concepts in a content area which is essential for comprehension and problem solving that lead to learning. There exist different learning strategies to assist learners acquire structural knowledge. One way is through providing graphic techniques which are ' 'spatial representation of structural knowledge in content area ' '. The graphic techniques including networks, pattern notes, semantic maps and graphic organizers which are differ in appearance, types of relationships, and the use and types of labels used to name concept relationships (Beissner et al, 1993, p.…show more content…
Ellis and Howard (2008) defined graphic organizers as spatial tools that commonly uses lines, circles, and boxes to represent and depict organization of important information in different ways of hierarchical, cause/effect, compare/contrast and cyclic or linear sequence. Such representation of necessary information of a topic makes communication facilitated. Ellis and Howard claimed, when the organizers used as tools of instruction for teaching different skills of writing, reading comprehension, thinking , learning of content, the tools can be effective scaffolding for learning of the skills for students with various ages, grade levels, and abilities. The organizers are also effective instructional tools for both visual and auditory learners. Because, according to Ellis and Howard (2008), a decisive factor for learning and information processes is not intellectual aptitude of learners but the complexity of materials, learners ' experience with material and his memory capability and teachers ' pedagogical skills and capabilities. Those who support the use of the strategy indicated the organizers are considered as basis that provide a reference points and conceptual basis to aid the learners in organizing the main concepts in to a logical pattern (Hawk, 1986). The representation of abstract relation through spatial tools help individuals to organize their thoughts before they begin to write. It appear that when students acquire the organizational structure for a
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