France had a taxation system which was corrupt, unfair and outdated. The taxation system was centralised to the suit the interests of the nobility and clergy and therefore failed to maximise revenue for the state whilst causing considerable discontent due to its inconsistent administration. While many were subject to the harsh implementation of taxes, they were further angered by the exemptions of the First and Second Estate, secured and reinforced through the parlements’ Right of Remonstrance. The sporadic hiring and firing of ministers was conducted largely on the basis of status over merit, meaning ministers were often incompetent and unsuitable. This was shown by the large discrepancy in the policies of Calonne and his predecessor Necker in a time of deep seated financial turbulence.
But as the forces that the Jagirdaris decreased and the Zamindar’s private armies increased, it became nearly impossible for the Jagirdaris to take the taxes from the Zamindars by force, even taking money from he peasants became difficult, and therefore the Jagirdari crisis started. This emphasises that disunity in the Mughal empire was becoming more and more apparent as the years went. The zamindars were superficially under Mughal rule and therefore the influence of imperial authority was taking over and sometimes even creating peasant uprising. As a result of this, the Emperor had to auction off land (ljara) for revenue but unfortunately that plan backfired and led to the Mughal nobility being unhappy as there was not enough land for
Persia also dealt with military complications that affected the empire, and its problems also related to the fact that foreigners inhabited the Persian army. The issue which plagued the empire and ultimately caused its downfall was the make-up of its military.34 The Persian empire 's military was composed of soldiers who each possessed their own language and traditional ways of engaging in combat.35 This drawback caused confusion when the military was occupied by the action of battle and caused additional losses on the Persian party rather than the opposing side.36 When Persia succumbed to more defeats than victories the empire 's domination wavered and Persia was admitted to the gradual
Landowners also lost land due to the zamindari system (introduced by the British), which said that zamindars were the landowners and that they had to collect the rent from peasants. Craftsmen were ruined by the large-scale rush of cheap British manufactured goods into India, which made their handmade goods uneconomical, closing their business. People who made a living by following religious pursuits lost their livelihood due to the withdrawal of royal patronage. These issues resulted in shortage of food for the Indians as they could not grow enough food, leading to health problems such as famine and
Bahadur Khan, Diler Khan and Zulfiqar Khan were all suspected of hiding such motives. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Empire began to break up rather fast. The successors of Aurangzeb were worthless and were too busy with luxuries and plotting. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperors became ease-loving and
The underlying cause was the backward economic condition of the country, which made it unable to sustain the war effort against powerful, industrialized Germany”(1917). After Russia was represented by a provisional government three major factors that had an immense impact on the government were the Petrograd Soviet, the government’s extension on the war, and the Bolsheviks gaining power. One significant group that weakened/overtook the Provisional Government was the other half of Russia, the Petrograd Soviet. After Tsar’s government disintegrated
Both of the empires had economic issues due to the government’s shortage of money which lead to an inability to operate effectively to its full extent, hindering them. For instance near the end of its rule, the Han Dynasty the government was short on money due to government’s inability to correct the decline of tax revenue, causing them to be unable to subsidize and give handouts after poor, because the dynasty’s monetary supply was based upon agriculture causing economic crisis (Blackwell and Blackwell)(Ebrey)(Beetz). Because the government was so short on money they had opt cut wages and demand taxes form kings and nobles a year in advance, and with such little money they were unable to give handouts after poor harvest people were forced to travel for food bringing down the population size and creating a venerable state for the empire due to the economic stress (Blackwell and Blackwell). Meanwhile in the Roman Empire, inflation had stretched to extreme levels at the same time the empire as facing taxation issues, Tax administrators were pushed to enforce new taxes due in effect of the decrease in tax revenue causing a fatal economic crisis (Fait). Unfortunately the government’s attempts to correct the inflation and tax revenues through multiple methods such as increasing public spending and fixed prices were in vain, and the wealthy 5 percent had the influence over the
Arguing “Political and economic models were borrowed from the West to replace the Islamic political and economic systems after independence from colonial rulers in the mid-twentieth century, creating overcrowded cities lacking social support systems, high unemployment, government corruption, and a growing gap between rich and poor. Rather than leading to a better quality of life, Westernization led to the breakdown of traditional family, religious, and social values. Many Muslims blame Western models of political and economic development as the sources of moral decline and spiritual malaise” (Religion of Islam). This is just a short list of the many problems the Islamic world faced because of European Colonialism. Theorists needed to find solutions and the two new streams that emerged each had their own pros and cons.
One of the direct causes of the French Revolution was the incapability of the Royal Treasury in resolving its problems. The fiscal crisis of 1786 worsened the situation since France had been living beyond its means since seventeenth century. The unique features and hostile reactions provoked by the fiscal system of the state during the Ancien Regime were also responsible for the French Revolution. Another major reason for the French Revolution was bankruptcy of the state due to conflicts between the Monarchy and nobility to rule out the tax reforms, which were detrimental to the progress of the state. Furthermore, there had been an increase in social antagonism between the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy.
The imposition of taxes and cut in tariff rates on the advice of IMF has greatly affected the incomes of the poor and middle class earners. The absolute poverty has increased which has promoted unsocial activities in the country. This shows that IMF and World Bank’s lending is not a blessing at all rather it is taken as a measure to cripple Pakistan’s economy and make the country a toy in the hands of international financial