Development of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized patients is fatal, but preventable. DVT and subsequent Pulmonary Embolism (PE) can be affected by surgical and non-surgical patients. Early assessment and interventions are important to prevent DVT in acutely ill patients.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a nerve disorder that occurs at the site of an injury. It occurs especially after injuries from high-velocity impacts such as those from bullets or shrapnel. However, it may occur without apparent injury. The arms or legs are usually involved.
Marty Smith is a 67-year-old male who has called 911 after experiencing chest pain and dizziness. The paramedics arrive and notice a bottle of nitroglycerin on the table. The patient states he has angina and is to take the medication as needed for chest pain. He took one pill an hour ago and a second pill 10 minutes prior to calling 911. Prior to this evening’s chest pain, he ate at a buffet and consumed 4 whiskey drinks. His ECG is not indicative of a myocardial infarction.
Osgood-Schlatter disease is an inflammation of the area below your kneecap called the tibial tubercle. There is pain and tenderness in this area because of the inflammation. It is most often seen in children and adolescents during the time of growth spurts. The muscles and cord-like structures that attach muscle to bone (tendons) tighten as the bones are becoming longer. This puts more strain on areas of tendon attachment. The condition may also be associated with physical activity involving running and jumping.
The HAS-BLED score is recommended for bleeding risk assessment. HAS-BLED assigns one point for the presence of each of the following: hypertension (uncontrolled systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg), abnormal renal and/or liver function, previous stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, and concomitant drugs and/or alcohol excess. The HAS-BLED scores range from 0-9, with scores of 3 or more indicating high bleeding risk. HAS-BLED allows providers to identify bleeding risk factors and correct modifiable risk factors in order to decrease the patient’s risk of bleeding. HAS-BLED bleeding risk assessment should not be used as a tool to exclude patients from getting anticoagulation therapy but rather identify patients in whom caution should be used with such
A 19 year old black male patient (Siyabonga Nkosi, from Tembisa) was admitted to SBAH Internal medicine with history of syncope (2 episodes on different occasions), now occurring for the third time, it is associated with loss of consciousness and
The first type of shock is Anaphylactic shock. Anaphylactic shock is caused by severe allergic reactions and can be life threatening. Typical symptoms of Anaphylactic shock are itching of the eyes, swallowing and breathing difficulties, abdominal pain, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea , hives, and angioedema. Common triggers include nuts, shellfish, dairy products, egg whites, sesame seeds, and wasp or bee stings. If someone is in anaphylactic shock call 911 and then administer an epinephrine auto injector if available. Next have the person lie on their back, loosen any tight clothing, cover them with a blanket, and don’t give them anything to drink. If the person starts vomiting or bleeding from the mouth turn the person on their side to prevent choking. If symptoms improve still seek emergency medical treatment because it is possible for symptoms to recur.
The muscles in the butt (buttocks) are called gluteal muscles. A gluteal strain happens when the gluteal muscles are overstretched or torn. A tear can be partial or complete. A gluteal strain can cause pain and stiffness in your buttocks, legs, and lower back. A strain might be referred to as “pulling a muscle.”
Hemangioma is a common type of. It is a tumor-like birthmark of cells called endothelial cells. You can get hemangioma anywhere in your body. Most appear during the first weeks of life, and then grows rapidly for 6-12 months. They start to shrink which may take 7 years. Tumor regression is complete in 50% of children by age five and 70% by age seven. By the time a child is ten or twelve the tumor is always complex. Some fat tissue or thin skin may remain. Hemangioma isn’t like a disease, it’s just kind of like a rare infection. Hemangioma is not hereditary, but 10% of infants have a family history of these birthmarks. No known food, drug, or activity can cause Hemangioma. Hemangioma is a collection of extra blood vessels in the skin.
Arteriosclerosis is a condition that involves the narrowing or hardening of the arteries. It occurs when cholesterol builds up across the walls of the arteries and causes obstruction of the blood vessels. Arterial hardening occurs mainly when an individual has been on a diet with unhealthy high levels of cholesterol. Initially, the individual with arteriosclerosis will experience no symptoms while the disease is developing slowly. The first symptoms are usually noticed when there is a disruption in the blood supply to the muscles and tissues because of the arterial blockage. The most common symptoms for individuals with arteriosclerosis are chronic leg pains and the leg may become dark and cold to the touch. With arteriosclerosis, there may also be a loss of leg and hand hair. Another common symptom is muscle pain in the calves, thighs, and feet, which may cause it to be uncomfortable to sit or sleep. There may also be numbness in the legs and feet. To treat arteriosclerosis there are medications, surgeries, and lifestyle modifications that can help an individual with the disease.
The process consists of a complex regulated system mediated by enzymes, activators, inhibitors, platelets, neutrophils, and endothelial cells, which is dependent on a delicate balance among several systems. work together when the blood vessel endothelial cells is injured by mechanical trauma, physical
Thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus within the vascular system. Development of thrombosis after vessel wall injury is characterised by the deposition of platelets, tissue factor and fibrin. A thrombus is a solid or semi-solid mass, which consists of aggregated platelets, that form a platelet plug and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The formation of a thrombus is a healthy response to blood vessel injury intended to prevent blood loss, and is the first step in restoring haemostasis.