And in another study did by Wolters et al., (1996) endorsement of performance goal orientation positively predicted students’ task value, self-efficacy, and cognitive and self-regulatory strategy use. Often, performance goals orientation has been associated with a maladaptive pattern of cognition, affect, and behavior (Review on Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988). However, unlike the researches concerning mastery goals, research concerning performance goals are inconsistent. In studies conducted by Maehr and Midgley and their colleagues (e.g., Anderman & Midgley, 1997; Kaplan & Midgley,
A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The literature reviews in this section will present a description on Variation Theory and Learning Study, and the degree to which the approach are being used in education context. This section will also review literatures that are related to tone value drawing, student learning and teacher development. Variation Theory as a Theoretical Framework The development of variation theory derives from the field of phenomenography in which was out of the interest of the different ways people experience a phenomenon (Marton & Booth, 1997). According to Miller (1956), there is a threshold to our capacity to focus. The numbers of aspects on an object or a phenomenon in our focal awareness are limited.
Teacher educators and scholars of teacher education have raised questions such as what do teachers need to know, care about, and be able to do and guess some way out of the usual experiences (Feiman-Nemser, 2008). There is a definable body of knowledge, thought, and practice that teachers need to possess in their stay at the teacher education prior to their entry into actual teaching (Hess, 2008). In this regard, Feiman-Nemser (2008) identified four major dimensions (learning to think like a teacher, learning to know like a teacher, learning to feel like a teacher, and learning to act like a teacher) that student teachers should address well at the teacher education. These themes include teachers’ skills, strategies, routines and the judgments to figure out what to do, with whom to do, and when (Afe, 2006; Lee, 2008). Teacher education curriculum has to incorporate contents and learning experiences that ensure knowledge and skill about subject area contents, students, instructional methodologies and communication skills (Dunking & Michael, 1987; Borman,
Needs analysis that emphasizes on the learners' present situation (strength and weaknesses) is called Present Situation Analysis (PSA) and the one that emphasizes on what learners need after taking the ESP course is Target Situation Analysis (TSA) (pp. 8-9). The result of the needs analysis can be the start point for the teacher to design the syllabus and select the teaching materials for an ESP course. The authenticity of the materials and the use of textbooks or tailor-made materials are the issues about the materials selection since ESP relates to the learners’ disciplines or professions. The teaching and learning process, the assessment and the evaluation also have equally important roles as needs analysis and course design.
In order to enrich research results and provide more insights on specific formative assessment principles, a semi-structured interview was used in this research. The semi-structured interview enabled the researcher to obtain in-depth statements of preferences, opinions and experience about formative assessment. Drever (1997) described the term semi-structured interview as “a general structure by deciding in advance what ground is to be covered and what main questions are to be asked. This leaves the detailed structure to be worked out during the interview.” (p. 1). Using semi-structured interviews can lead the researchers directly to the particular values and beliefs that teachers attach to particular techniques of formative assessment.
Teacher professional identity encompasses how teachers view themselves as a teacher and what they consider to be a good teacher. They should always be driven towards the growth of the children, enabling them to flourish, or as Aristotle said, helping them to reach a level of ‘eudemonia’ (Nodding, 2002). While one of the key roles of teachers is to inspire students, they should first be inspired themselves, or this passion and enthusiasm will not transfer into the classroom environment (Delaney, 2017). For example, some of the teachers at St.Aibherin’s may have a strong commitment to equality and this is why they choose to work in a DEIS band 1 school in such a diverse environment. In essence, effective teachers have good intentions and believe that what they are doing is making a difference i.e.
Curriculum Development. Curriculum development should be viewed as a process by which meeting learners’ needs leads to improvement of learners’ learning. Therefore, curriculum developers should gather as much information as possible toward the learners’ needs. Those who are affected by the curriculum should be involved in the process of planning and then in the process of implantation and evaluation (Lunenborg and Ornstein, 2012) Reyes and Dizon (2015) and Bilbao, Lucido, Iringan, and Javier (2011) claimed that there are three types of curriculum: 1) The intended curriculum – content specified by the state/ province course or at a particular grade level,district or school, which must be addressed in a particular 2) The implemented curriculum-content
For the second language teacher education curriculum, the learners may be both would-be teachers and practicing teachers. Information about the starting perspective includes information about the learners of the teacher education curriculum and their expectations. Information about the learners and their expectations contains who they are, what they know, and know how to fulfill their expectation. From ending perspective the information is gathered about what the learners should know and be able to do as a result of teacher education programs. Graves (2009) developed a framework for planning second language teacher education programs.
Each informs the other. It helps me in modifying my teaching strategies and helps my learners in modifying their learning strategies. Therefore, learning and assessment are like two sides of a coin, one cannot exist without the other. I feel that formative assessment in constructivism works best rather than summative because the focus is to improve the quality of a learner than creating evidence of their grades. It assists my learners in learning and helps in identifying their strengths and weaknesses.