Terrorism is a demonstration of terror or violence used to make a nation or a certain group fearful in order to achieve a certain aim. Although it is often characterized as a violent crime carried out by a group of people (terrorists) within a State or An area where majority of people live. There are many kinds of terrorism such as domestic, administrative, communal and other but no proper typology is given. John Philip Jenkins, a Notable Lecturer of History from Baylor University classifies the terrorism into three main types: revolutionary, sub revolutionary, and establishment terrorism . It is considered to be a major problem for the societies worldwide in the present age where the threat of terrorism continues to cause destruction and fatalities for useless means.
Terrorism is in the extensive sense, the use of purposely indiscriminate violence as a means to generate terror, to attain a political, spiritual or conceptual aim. It is used in this regard mainly to refer to violence against peacetime aims or in war against non-fighting. It is mainly caused because of the hate towards certain group of people. They are National terrorism and International terrorism. National terrorism involves attacking their own people and opposing their government for certain reasons.
It is an antithetical phenomenon whose means, more often than not contradicts and therefore negates its end. When directed to the state, it often takes the posture of anarchro-nihilism. It is employed by disgruntled sub- national movements or clandestine, criminal groups as a means of furthering nefarious agenda. In this light, the Boko Haram (inappropriately interpreted by transliteration as Western Education is sinful), insurgency has been referred “as the violent assertion of a fringe sectarian identity based on the dogma of a subgroup of a larger national confessional group” (Nchi, 2013:200). In this regard, the “larger national group” refers to the wider Islamic community of Nigeria.
In addition, it introduces the benefit of linking DDR program and transitional justice in brief. 2.1 Literature Review War shatters the stability of the societies and split up people in the armed groups. It also affects the lives of people in various ways including women and children. It simply breaks the rule of law and order in the society. Conflict actors violate the human rights and international law to achieve their goals through unlawful killings, torture, arbitrary arrest and sexual violence.
A lot of people in today’s society as a violent religion. This belief is again perpetuated by the emphasis of terrorism at the hands of Islamic extremists. This idea of violence in Islam is also misunderstood through the idea of jihad. Jihad concerns the struggle for something greater and the spreading the teachings of Islam. Many Islamic extremists view this as using any way possible to establish a caliphate as the main form of in Muslim nations.
Gus Martin defines state sponsored-terrorism as an official government that supports policies of violence, repression, and intimidation when it is an act committed against an enemy of the state. They pursue such policies by using or creating “unofficial” groups through monetary means to commit a heinous act against an individual or group that is deemed an enemy of the state. (Martin, 71) There are two types of terrorism committed by the state. That of state assistance for terrorism and the other of state patronage for terrorism. In terms of patronage, on the international level this is when the government creates a group to act beyond the scope of the government and its laws and on a domestic level they impact culture and national security to maintain the governments form of “law and order”.
It occurs mainly of internal issues, not disposed to resolve the contradictions that exist in a country, and is one of the tangiest forms of domestic political confrontation. Domestic terrorism has two specific effects. First, it defines the activities of internal extremist-oriented political forces, organizations, and individuals related to the existing regime. Secondly, refers to the actions of the opposing political forces and extremist foundations. In the first case, the activities of terrorist organizations and individuals express their negative attitude to the existing system, political authority conducted its course, aimed at the forcible elimination, modification or weakening of social-political system, its institutions.
This perception of Islam is enlarging globally more and more because of some reasons such as terrorist attacks in non-Muslim countries, effect of media on the people, misunderstanding of Islam, and lack of the true representative Muslims in non-Muslim countries. First of all, existence of some terrorist groups which call their selves ‘Muslim’ is can be seen as the most remarkable reason for islamophobia. To illustrate, ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) organizes suicide bomb attacks in many countries and they claim that they justify this attacks with Islam and different interpreting of Quran. These attacks pose a threat for the innocent people all around the world and cause a massive fear from Muslims among non-Muslim people. What’s more, due to ISIS’s belief that it represents the Islam, people generalize all Muslims as terrorists.
Hoffman like many other scholars studying terrorism asserts the act of violence is carried out in attempt to reach political agendas. Does the latter statement hold truth, are acts of terror done at free will or are they an outcry in attempt to reach political objectives? Martha Crenshaw is one of many scholars who study the psychology of terrorism and she makes the claim that the purpose of terrorism is preeminently political and symbolic. Crenshaw suggests that terrorism is deliberate and systemic violence performed by small groups of people. She believes that terrorism is meant to hurt but not destroy, in that it is unlike genocide which purpose serves to eliminate entire communities (Crenshaw 2000).
“Terrorism is the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against government, public or individual to attain in political objective”. Terrorism can be divided in two categories. It is ‘discriminate’ when an attack is made by a known enemy e.g. American drone attacks in tribal areas of Pakistan. ‘Indiscriminate’ terrorism can be anywhere against anyone e.g.