Dalia El-Desoky Organic Chemistry II Lab 05 8 February 2017 Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol Introduction: Dehydration is a common reaction in Organic Chemistry used to produce carbon-carbon double bonds. The dehydration mechanism involves the removal of water from an alcohol to form an alkene. In this experiment, 2-methylcyclohexanol will undergo acid catalyzed dehydration in heat to form three products: 1-methylcyclohexene, 3-methylcyclohexene, and methylenecyclohexane . The reaction is carried out in a Hickman still filled with Drierite, a drying agent composed of CaSO4 which absorbs water. The product is transferred from the ring of the Hickman still into a pre-weighed vial for analysis. The percent yield of the recovered product is calculated, and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to analyze the purity and percent composition of different alkene products. Chemical Reactions: References: Crago, Kathleen. et. al,. Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition, Eiley, New York, pp 96-99 Dehydration Notes …show more content…
In this experiment, 0.95 mL of phosphoric acid, 0.75 mL of 2-methylcyclohexonal, and Drierite are added to a Hickman still. The prepared Hickman still is submerged halfway into a preheated sand bath. The temperature range was kept above 140 ˚C but below 165˚C to prevent the product from evaporating. The product collected in the ring of the Hickman still for about twenty minutes. Once the reaction was complete, the product was transferred into a pre-weighed vial using a slant Pasteur pipette. The percent yield of the recovered product is calculated, and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to analyze the purity and percent composition of different alkene
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The possible explanations and changes to make are similar to the previous questions. Conclusion and Future Experiment 18. The identity of the product and unknown were 4-tert-butylbenzyl phenol ether and tert-butyl phenol respectively. The key to making this discovery was the melting point and TLC results!
The anthraquinone dye experiment has the purpose to identify the anthraquinone dyes from unknown mixture by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the unknown fraction. An anthraquinone is an aromatic organic compound obtained by the oxidation of anthracene. To separate the compounds in the mixture, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography uses portioning of a sample between a stationary solid phase and a liquid mobile phase. As the stationary phase, they use either silica gel or alumina, and organic solvents as the mobile phase. In order to accomplish the experiment, an unknown which is a solution of at least two anthraquinone dyes will be used.
PChem Experiment No. 3 Cryoscopic determination of molecular weight 1. Aims To determine the apparent molecular weight of benzoic acid in cyclohexane by creating a binary system and finding the different freezing points of the solutions. 3. Experimental Procedure A dry, empty freezing-point tube and its cork were weighed together.
Introduction This lab was conducted at Station 8 in Room 103 of the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Building at Michigan Technological University. The primary objective of this lab was to: Find the viscosity in cP of 10 wt% sucrose, 20 wt% sucrose, 30 wt% sucrose, 40 wt% sucrose, 45 wt% sucrose, 50 wt% sucrose, 60 wt% sucrose, 65 wt% sucrose, and 2 mystery sucrose and water solutions at room temperature, 40°C, and 60°C. The secondary objectives of the lab were to: Find the dependence of viscosity in cP on the concentration in wt% sucrose and temperature in °C.
Liquid- liquid extraction depends on the solubility of different solutes in immiscible solvents causing organic and aqueous layers. Partitioning coefficient is the ratio of concentration solutes that are in each layer. Deprotonation and protonation of the molecules causes charges to form to distinguish, which solute is in either the organic or aqueous layer. Adjusting pH in the aqueous phase insures that the correct solutes are being recovered. Altering the pH insures that either the solute is going to be in the organic or aqueous phase due to the charges that are form through deprotonation or protonation of the molecule.
INTRODUCTION HPC is non ionic semisynthetic polymer. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is also commonly known as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hypromellose which is a coating agent and film-former and used as an inactive ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. It has also been used as a rate-controlling polymer for sustained-release dose forms in pharmaceutical industry. CHEMISTRY
3mL of strong smelling, clear colorless acetic anhydride liquid was then measured in a 10mL graduated cylinder in the fume hood, and poured into the Erlenmeyer flask. The flask was then gently swirled while 5 drops of 85% phosphoric acid was added to the flask. During this time, the solution in the flask was whitish and cloudy. Phosphoric acid was used in the synthesis to become a source of H+ ions that would catalyze the reaction. Phosphoric acid is a liquid that doesn 't contain much water, since water will cause side reactions and reduce the yield of acetylsalicylic acid.
The condensation of aromatic aldehydes with anhydrides is called the perkin reaction. When the anhydride has two α-hydrogens, dehydration always occurs; the β-hydroxy acid salt is never isolated. In some cases, anhydrides of the form (R2CHCO)2O have been used, and then the hydroxyl compound is the product since dehydration cannot take place. This base in the reaction is nearly always the sodium or potassium salt of the acid corresponding to the
3.6.4 Assay of Catalase (CAT) Catalase activity was assayed by measuring the inhibition rate of Hydrogen peroxide at 240nm according to the method described by Luck (1974). For this assay, • A 20% homogenate of the leaf extracts of different plants was prepared in phosphate buffer, 0.067 M (pH 7.0). The homogenate was then centrifuged.
Initially, the conversion of benzyl alcohol in to benzaldehyde was chosen as a model reaction to optimize the reaction conditions. Effect of reaction time and mmol of H2O2 on progress of oxidation reaction was studied (Fig. 4. the experiment was performed with 20 mg catalyst, 10 ml acetonitrile and two different amount of H2O2 1 and 2 mmol for 1mmol benzyl alcohol at reflux condition (85 ºC ) and plotted with respect to the time. With increasing the mole ratio of BzOH : H2O2 from 1:1 to 1:2, the conversion of benzyl alcohol increased from 75% to 93%. The conversion also increased with increasing time of reaction and then remain constant at 180 min.
Experimental and Methods Materials All chemicals and solvents used in this study such as hexane, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, toluene and acetic acid were analar grade and were used without further purification. Oleic acid (OA), Linoleic acid (LA), p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA), oleyl alcohol (OL) and oleoyl chloride (OLC) were acquired from Fisher and Merck. Synthesis Reactions Monoepoxidation of Linoleic Acid (MELA) (2) Linoleic acid (LA) 1 (1.4 g) was fluxed in 10 mL toluene and 120 mg of Novozym 435® lipase was added to the solution. During stirring the reaction for 15 min, 30% H2O2 (15 μL) was added and the addition was repeated every 15 min for 7 h. after complited the reaction the lipase Novozym 435® was filtered and the mixture of
In this experiment, the materials used were provided by California State University, Fresno chemistry stockroom. We used a lab coat and lab goggles. The materials used was a 10mL volumetric flask, and an electric balance. Procedure: In order to begin the experiment we need to understand our objectives.
Abstract: The Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124) belongs to zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases family. The aim of this experiment was to determine the subcellular localisation of YAD in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cell was ruptured by homogenisation and fractionated by a process called centrifugation. Protein assay was carried out to calculate the concentration of protein prior to dilutions.