the idea of representative government began to take root in some city states, specifically Athens. Athenian reformers moved toward democracy, rule by the people. In Athens citizens participated directly in political decision making. However there were limitations on citizenship to ensure that only the most rational people were able to vote. Through the construction of democracy in Athens, equality of all citizens became greater, and the city would become the top democracy of all the democracies.
For instance Athens was a democracy in which all male citizens over the age of 18 were allowed to vote. On the other hand Sparta was an oligarchy where power was placed in various military leaders. The primary characteristics that made Han china far superior to ancient greece was their civil service exam which lead to the government being lead by educated bureaucrats compared to just people based on their family title. Many people claim that Greece was superior because they allowed for citizen participation in a democracy
Pericles promoted the arts, literature, and philosophy. He gave inspiring and great speeches to give citizens the idea that they were an amazing civilization, and the most powerful. This overall boosts the ego of the Athenian Citizens and convinces them that they are a “master race”, and it also encourages them to become apart of their government, and work together. With the continuation of these speeches given by Pericles, it would lead the Athenians to show off their amazing achievements, by sending fleets into the Black Sea to demonstrate power, finding
Pericles was the most important political leader for Athens who influenced Greek politics. He was known as “the first citizen of Athens”. He had many different functions during the period of creativity and learning, these were an outstanding general, politician, orator and patron of art. Pericles and Athens alliance formed the Delian League, and then Pericles also helped to led it. The biggest Pericles achievement was construction of Acropolis.
Various boards of officials also existed to make administrative decisions; members of these were usually taken from each of the ten traditional tribes. public positions were dominated by the wealthier citizens because positions of power needed to have and do financial layout to fund municipal projects such as ship building and festivals. Sparta had two kings coming from separate royal families and the most important state officials were the five ephors that used to hold office for only one year and they had power over most areas of civic life and they could appoint and check on all the other public officials. And then there were the council of 9* elders called the Gerousia. Military commanders also held public office in some city-states as In Athens, there was a board of ten elected generals, called “ Strategoi” who could influence the agenda of the assembly.
Ruled by Ptolemy I Soter in 323 BC, he turned Egypt as part of the Hellenistic kingdoms. The rapid growth and influence of the Ptolemaic Kingdom mainly came from eagerness of Ptolemy I to further strengthen his own position as ruler. Housing the capital of Alexandria within the kingdom, Egypt became the most important learning center as libraries were constructed and Greek influence was nurtured into the part of the Egyptian culture. Egyptians with status and class, like Ptolemy I who had been recorded to have donated talents for the arts, were seen by the native Greeks as very skillful and educated. However, the political hierarchy within Egypt remained true to the traditional authoritative power of the Pharaohs.
Ten Cohorts combined with a calvary force, created a legion. A Legatus Legionis commanded the entire legion, or roughly 5,000 men, in battle and usually was a senator. A Consul was an elected military and civil leader. The chain of command the Romans created alongside their ranks shows some similarities to modern militaries. This chain of command gave clear roles to every Roman soldier and offered benefits such as wages and possible land.
However, the militarized society of Sparta and the warrior mindset didn’t chose alienation of the masses over the integration of the weakest members of the society. With that in mind, we will now look at the finer details of the governmental systems of these two city states. Discussion How did people in Athens and Sparta obtain the right to participate in public life and make decisions affecting the community? Athenians participated in the public life and the process of decision making for the community, by the means of direct democracy; Thetes - all free male members who were also a citizen of Athens – had the right to partake in debates and passing laws in Ekklesia or “People’s
To start with, the refernce Socrates gave to the first type constitution was that of Crete and Sparta. One constitution who is generally aplauded or was seen by that time as a real succsesfull form of regime. This goverment grew in popularity because athleticism and military had a really important focus around their citizens. Socrates named this regime Timocracy, which means the goverment of honor. This government was totally obsessed with the honor and glory around their citizens.
Sparta seemed intent on consolidating power amongst its aristocratic families, while Athens moved in a different direction, attempting to keep power from gathering around any specific group, How were the two city-states similar in their governmental structures, and how did they differ? Both societies had a public assembly in which every citizen could make themselves heard. Both had relatively short terms of public office, (excluding the Gerousia) and both believed in reaching a consensus before enacting policy. Athens had a much larger group of citizens who had a much greater influence on matters of policy, and Sparta was a much more streamlined machine, geared toward making war, and maintaining military readiness. Conclusion Neither society was as inclusive as most modern societies, but both had things they held ideologically important, and did very well.