How are Sparta and Athens different and similar to each other? These are the types of questions that allow us to understand the two cities politically. Althought Classical Athens was a democracy, not all citizens had the same rights and benefits. Women, slaves, and foreigners were not citizens, which leaves the males as the only individuals with citizenship. Having citizenship means not being excluded from politics and having the option of serving in the Assembly.
Back then the people didn't have the courage to tell the truth but when John Locke released the theory it made the difference. Popular sovereignty is when it's ruled by the people and it is found in the preamble. This principle was made by the fact that people wanted to be independent and governed themselves. Republicanism, form of government where the people elected their representatives to create and reinforce the law and it is found in Article four section four. This principle is for the people because they wanted to feel safe, they wanted the power of choosing their representatives and they wanted to chose someone who can keep their promises and protect the rights of the citizens.
So, the Romans created a new form of government, called a democracy. In this form of government, the people vote for their own leaders. Every citizen could vote for a leader, but since the women, children, and slaves were not citizens, they could not vote. The Romans had three branches of government - the legislative assembly, the senate, and the consuls. The twelve tables were a large part of Roman rule of law.
Democracy is a government of people which the power rests on the elected agents under an electoral vote. Abraham Lincoln phrased democracy is a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people." Some say that Democracy and freedom are mutual words in that section, but the two are not synonymous. It’s true that democracy is a set of idea on freedom and liberty, although it also consists of procedures which were constructed throughout the time. Because Democracy in short is the division of freedom, we can identify that government, equality of people and human rights as democratic.
This system allows all three branches of government to try to improve or just outright veto the actions of another branch, keeping the other branches from being too powerful. One example is that then president, who is in charge of the Executive branch, can veto laws passed by Congress. Another example would be that Congress can remove the president from office in certain circumstances. The French philosopher Montesquieu originally thought of these ideas of separation of powers and the system of checks and balances. The way he saw it, is that these systems were the best way of keeping government from becoming corrupt.
As a result, they did not have as much political power in Rome. During this time, Rome was run as a republic, a state where power is held by the people and their elected representatives. In Rome, they had two consuls who were in complete power and the Senate who would make the laws. Any male
Democracy refers to a system of governance in which the supreme powers are vested in the hands of people and is exercised by them indirectly or directly through a system of representation which involves periodic free and fair elections (http://www.zesn.org.zw/publications/publication_280.pdf). Most importantly, the rule of law is needed to ensure that governors are held accountable through elections that are free and fair (Rose, R 2009) Democracy really means nothing or less than the rule of people, expressing their Sovereign will by their votes (Bryce 1921). However, in a broader definition of democracy it emphasizes multiple ways of participation in politics. Participation not only means that all adult citizens have a right to vote but that also free to advance their views by joining political groups, engaging in open discussion(Rose, R 2009). Democratization is a progressive transition to a more democratic system.
The art and architecture of the Parthenon and Pantheon were stellar symbols of their countries’ superior status in the world. While both had governments that allowed citizens to vote, the real power in Rome was in the hands of the emperor. That the emperor was considered a god is reflected in the celestial aspects of the Pantheon. However, Greek society was a democracy and the Parthenon’s frieze indicated that all citizens would participate in the governance of their country. Although the two buildings have features in common, the Parthenon was the result of the culture expressing their democratic ideals, while the Pantheon illuminates the ideals of the republic of the Roman Empire.
For example, the website “governmentvs.com” states many ideas about the people getting the right to speak out. It states “Majority rules, people’s rights, power of voting…” This sets a democracy to a form of government where it favors the people. The citizens have control and some power of what goes on in their own country. The article also states, “People have freedom and power of voting and choosing what they want.” The main idea about a democracy is having the people have rights to speak up in the government. This system favors and encourages the citizens to feel as if they are a part of the government.
So, the question is, how did democracy in ancient Greek look like? Beck (p. 147) explained that democracy can stand for a constitution which is opposed to tyranny, or in the sense of modern scholarship, “a constitution which is based on a very high degree of popular participation”. Rabb and Suleiman, in their research, mentioned that democracy means “a political constitution based on rules that confer the power to take collective decisions to a (more or less) large number of the members of the group and respect basic liberal rights” (Rabb & Suleiman, 2003, p.23). Therefore, it can be understood that democracy is a government ruled collectively by the citizens, in this sense, those who are empowered with the rights to citizens in the city