Free riders use public goods and do not pay for them. Alcohol is a private good, because you have to buy it in a store and if you took the last bottle of chardonnay the others can not buy anymore chardonnay, so it is excludable. Although you might think that there can be no social benefits of alcohol consumption there is one. Recent studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption could be linked to improved wellbeing, because of the social interaction associated with having a drink with colleges or friends at a local bar. The alcohol appears to be releasing endorphins, which promote social bonding.
(2008) to investigate the acculturation, drinking and alcohol abused and dependance among Hispanics in the Texas-Mexican border. Researchers asked participants – over 1000 Hispanics adults from El Paso, the Rio Grande Valley and colonias living along the Texas-Mexican border, to answer a survey. Participants were then sorted into 4 categories: “very Mexican oriented”, “Mexican bicultural”, “Anglo bicultural”, and “very Anglo/Anglicized”. The results found out that among male participants, those who were “very Mexican oriented”, “Mexican bicultural”, “Anglo bicultural”, and reported heavy episodic drinking were more at risk of alcohol abuse and/or dependance in compare to the “very Anglo/Anglicized” group. This result is evidence that the Unidimensional Model of Acculturation is effective in explaining the process of acculturation in relation to immigrant’s well-being, through drinking behaviours, since only participants who fully adapted the Anglo culture had a lower risk of abusing alcohol.
In fact those who are thoroughly acculturated are more likely to partake in poor eating habits and substance abuse and are also more likely to experience unfavorable birthing scenarios than those who are less acculturated but share the same historical origin. On the contrary however, they are more likely than most to utilize preventative services ((LaVeist & Isaac, 2013). Although the Latino population is fairly large, the majority of the effects that acculturation has on their community has been implemented on Mexicans. Drug use is much more prominent in pregnant women, children and adults. Some studies even showed heavier use among females.
In the six trialed countries, 12% of the 1,822 people surveyed were classified as abstainers, 26.9% were “sensible” drinkers, 29.4% were considered “hazardous” drinkers, and 31.7% were classified as binge drinkers. Based on these classifications, surveys examined how the drinking habits of the participants impacted the persons work or employment, marriage and relationships, relationships with family members, friends or social lifes, physical health, and finances. The results of the experiment concluded that binge drinkers were six times as likely to experience socially related consequences, such as poor relationships and socially isolation than abstainers, while the hazardous drinker was four and a half times more likely and the sensible drinker is two times more likely to suffer social consequences than the abstaining counterpart; this thus proves the direct correlation between increased alcohol consumption and social consequences. However, after further examination, researchers concluded that the most prevalent cause of this relationship is the atmosphere and culture of the area in which the young adults were drinking (Plant,
The idea behind these program was to help treat the offenders for their substance abuse disorders while still holding them accountable for the crime that they had committed (Lutze & Wormer, 2013). Many studies have been conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of drug court programs across the country. In a qualitative study done by Gallagher 100 participants of the drug court program were examined. This study found that of the drug court participants, seventy-nine percent were not rearrested in the follow-up period. Twenty-one percent of those participants were rearrested (Gallagher, 2014).
Although significant work has been done on automatic gender recognition, the current systems are still not close to the human perceptual system due to appearance variations viz. lighting, expression, illumination, face pose, scale and aging. The innovative approach for gender recognition from face images is proposed to overcome the problem of illumination and expression. The system can detect the faces from input images given. Hence the objective of this proposed system is to classify the gender of a person in an unconstrained environment.
However, in the same research, it stated that “few physical attributes distinguished among the male gender-role groups.” (Gender, Gender Role, and Physical Appearance). Many people believe that men can also be very insecure about making sure they meet the standards of what a “man” should look like. For example, it is not very common to see grown men walking around in the streets wearing makeup and dresses, as these features have been assigned to women by our society. Stereotyping physical appearances by gender has always been common in our society and is still existent in today 's world, whether we choose to recognize it or
Women and men are born equal, the feminists claim. Men and women are not equal. Not only are they different on the physical level but they also differ in almost every way they relate to the world around them. Men and women have different communication skills, different uses of their emotions and even different apprehension of pain. However just because men and women are different does not mean that one is better than the other, in fact the existence of humanity depends on these differences.
Meanwhile, African Americans and Latino Americans accounted for roughly 13 percent and 17 percent in separate. At that time, an estimated 5.1 percent of the total population in America was the group of Asian Americans and others was about 3.8 percent. It can be inferred from this statistics that minority groups contribute a large number, nearly 40 percent to the American population except for White Americans. Therefore, I find that remaining and bringing into play minority groups’ identity not only bring benefits to themselves but also American society, particularly the diversity of American society. Why is it crucial to maintain the identity of the ethnic minority groups in America?
Gender Equality Gender equality – a brief introduction Human rights are for all human beings, men as well as women. This means that women are entitled to the same human rights as men. However, all over the world women have historically often been discriminated against in many ways, due to the fact that they are born as female and not male. Even though there have been some improvements, unfortunately, this kind of discrimination still exist in our societies. When trying to explain gender equality, it is good to start with a definition of the words sex and gender: Sex: Biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women.
Among gender in adolescence men are more likely to drink than women and consume more alcohol overall. Death rates are very high among Hispanic, lower among African Americans and the lowest among whites. In addition, Hispanics are among to highes related DUI death then African-American and Whites. While, non-Hispanic Whites have a increase in alcohol related disorders, Blacks and Hispanic have a higher alcohol related cirrhosis issues. Education - Underage drinking takes a huge toll on the body and on the mind especially for college students.
“Numerous studies have linked binge drinking to poorer academic performance (Mental Health Weekly Digest).” He surveyed citizens born between 1949 and 1972, a total of 24,088 people. In his research, he saw the correlation. Even though he saw that the lowered drinking age didn’t necessarily create greater alcohol consumption, but he saw that more people were binge drinking at a high level. He realized that since they were drinking before the age was increased, they were more alcohol dependent going into adulthood. He noted that college kids aren’t the only concern for binge drinking, but all of the people who have been drinking consistently for
The Appalachia region is less racial and culturally diverse than the rest of the United States. Though, this seems to be gradually shifting. Traditionally, the region has been largely occupied by non-Hispanic whites. The 1990 census exposed the beginning of racial and ethnic change of the Appalachian region (Salob, 2014). The proportion of African Americans was 24.9 percent which was approximately three times greater than non-Hispanic whites at 8.1 percent The poverty rate amongst African Americans in Appalachia was 27 percent with 12.1 percent being non-Hispanic whites.
SUMMARY: In the article, “ The Minimum Legal Drinking Age” written by Traci L Toomey, Carolyn Rosenfeld, and Alexander C. Wagenaar in Alcohol Health & Research World, the reasoning behind the why the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) is 21 is addressed. Till this day similar claims that were used to lower the MLDA many years ago are being applied. Regardless of the continuing debate about the MLDA studies show the effectiveness of a higher MLDA in averting alcohol related deaths and injuries within the youth.The lowering of the MLDA resulted in rates of injuries and deaths increasing. Once the MLDA was increased the rates of injuries and deaths decreased drastically. The advantage of using environmental approaches, being the MLDA, is that it
In the United States, Latinos adolescence have lower alcohol consumption rates compared to other minority groups. Alcohol consumption among young Latino adults has been associates with education, income, acculturation, family factors, income and peer-oriented activities. (Turner & Gil, 2002). Latino adolescence are significantly more prone to report binge alcoholism in the previous two weeks in the eighth grade than either White or African American youth, and are somewhat more inclined to do as such in the tenth grade. Latino adolescence are more probable than both African American and White youth adolescence to have consumer alcohol before operating a vehicle or have ridden with a driver who has consumer alcohol.