The other serotype present was serotype DEN-2. Concurrent infections with two different dengue virus serotypes is also reported first time in this region during an outbreak .Our results highlight the risks of febrile illness due to the prospect of dengue virus and indicate a large earlier exposure of the people of Patna, Bihar to dengue infection. Young people and males are more disposed to dengue fever according to present febrile cohort study of three year period Dengue infection was most frequent in the post-monsoon season. Further critical analysis is necessary to characterize the current dengue virus circulation patterns and to identify the linked serotypes and genotypes. The government and policy makers urgently need to make extensive efforts towards disease prevention and vector control through biological and/or environmental measures, chemical measures, and education strategies in the community, so that patients seek timely medical care, and knowledge of family dispensers/physicians/general practitioners to identify the admission signs and symptoms of dengue viral infection is strengthened.
Abstract Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. It is caused by the four dengue virus which is DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. Dengue may cause other diseases such as self-limited dengue fever, life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and even dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Failure of circulatory system, enlargement of the liver, shock and death will occur in severe cases of dengue fever. Review Introduction Dengue fever, which is also known as breakbone fever, is one of the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world which is caused by four dengue virus (DENV-1-4) .
Introduction Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious viral disease of ruminants and camelids transmit¬ted by Culicoides biting midges. It is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) and is placed in the epizooties list of diseases international. The manifestations of bluetongue range from an in apparent to a fatal outcome depending on the serotype and strain of the virus and the species, breed and age of the infected animal; older ani¬mals are generally more susceptible. Clinical signs are usually detected in fine-wool breeds of sheep and the white-tailed deer and include fever, facial oedema, haemorrhages into, and ulceration on, the oral mucosa and coronitis. Bluetongue typi¬cally occurs when susceptible animal species are introduced into areas with circulating virulent BTV strains, or when virulent BTV strains extend their range to previously
A disease vector is any agent that transmits and carries an infectious pathogen into another living organism. These vectors have immunity to the pathogen and thus allows for the successful transport of the pathogen. Not every vector is able to carry every pathogen and ecological restrains also limit the spread of the disease due to the inability of the vector to survive in different kinds of environments. Arthropods can serve as vectors and play an important role in disease transmission. These vectors include mosquitoes, fleas, sand flies, lice, ticks, and mites.
It spreads easily from one person to another but can be prevented through vaccination. It is caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheria. The infection is spread through person to person contact or through contact with objects that have the bacteria on them. You may also get the bacteria if you are around an infected person when they sneeze, cough or blow their nose. An infected person who hasn’t shown any sign and symptoms of diphtheria can transmit the bacteria infection for up to six weeks after the initial
The mosquito that transmits dengue is the Aedes mosquito (World Health Organization, 2013). Allergy, is a misguided reaction to foreign substances by the immune system, the body system of defense against foreign invaders, particularly pathogens (the agents of infection). The allergic reaction is misguided in that these foreign materials are usually harmless (Allergy, 2016). Rubeola, also known as measles, is a viral infection of the respiratory system. Measles is a very infectious disease that can be passed on another individual through contact with contaminated saliva and mucus.
Literature Review Dengue fever is a painful, debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by any one of four closely related dengue viruses. These viruses are related to the viruses that cause West Nile infection, infected mosquitoes typically spread West Nile virus. The mosquito first bites an infected bird and then bites a human or other animal. In rare, isolated incidents, blood transfusions, organ transplants, breastfeeding, or pregnancy can transfer the virus and spread the illness and there is Yellow Fever which also is transmitted by the same species of mosquito, Aëdes argentous, Poir. (Aegypti, L.), and the mechanism of transmission for both diseases is strikingly similar.
INTRODUCTION Influenza viruses constitute the genus Orthomyxovirus belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae, which consists of three species: A, B, and C. They are negative, single stranded RNA viruses. These viruses cause influenza also known as flu. Influenza is contagious acute respiratory disease that is marked by fever, chills, headache and feeling tired. It causes seasonal epidemics during winter mostly in the United States and Canada. Type C causes less severe flu compared to flu caused by type A and B. MODES OF TRANSMISSION Influenza spreads by tiny droplets when people with a flu talk, cough or sneeze.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Dengue whish also known as breakbone, or dandy fever is an acute, mosquito-borne fever that is incapaciting but rarely caused fatal. This disease is also characterized by extreme pain in and stiffness of the joints hence the name ‘breakbone fever’. The most severe form called dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which is characterized by hemorhaging blood vessels thus bleeding from the nose, mouth and internal tissues. May causing ausually fatal condition known as dengue shock syndrome due to blood vessel collapse if untreated (Kara Rogers, 2011). The first record that represent human cases of dengue were around A.D 992 in China with symptoms of fever, rash, eye pain, arthralgia and hemmorhage (John L. Capinera, 2008).
The West Nile Virus is a disease caused by mosquitoes during mosquito season. This virus can infect humans, birds, mosquitoes, horses and some other types of mammals. In the summer of 2002, there was a huge West Nile Virus epidemic in Africa and kept spreading around the world. When having this deadly virus you can 't really tell when you have it because there 's no symptoms. Also you can have the virus and have very mild symptoms.