Abstract: A report discussing the efficiency of prevention strategies against HIV infection as well as overviewing the life cycle of the virus and the modes of transmission to different hosts. The virus attacks CD4+ lymphocytes and impairs the self-mediated immunity of cells. This leaves the infected vulnerable to certain infections and cancers which result in death. ARV’s are the current mode of treatment and only slow down the viral replication of HIV. Prevention strategies have greatly reduced the amount of deaths caused by HIV.
It is constituting of 2130 coat protein molecules and a single-stranded RNA of 6400 bases. It’s rod like structure is assembled into a helix using the coat proteins and they form a hairpin structure(5,6). The protein monomer has 158 amino acids and assembled into four main alpha-helices that are joined to the central axis of the virus. The virion is 18 nm in width and 300 nm in length and a 4 nm core inside it(in the central part) (5,6,7). The TMV genome consists of 6.3-6.5 kb single stranded RNA and has a 3’ end which a t-RNA like structure and the 5’ end cap is methylated(8).
It affects the immune system by a virus that enters our body. One way your body fights influenza infections is by developing antibodies to the hemagglutinin on the virus. When antibodies attach to hemagglutinin, they keep the virus from attaching to healthy cells. This keeps the virus from infecting these cells. Bacteria Legionella The legionella is a pathogenic group of gram-negative bacteria.
For example, the anopheles mosquito is a vector for malaria, filariasis, and arboviruses. It pierces its mouthpart on the skin and feeds on the hosts. The pathogens carried by the mosquito, which are located within its salivary glands, are transmitted as the mosquito is feeding on the host blood. This enables the mosquito to directly transfer the pathogens into the blood stream of the host. Another example of an arthropod vector is the sand and black fly.
“Viruses are microscopic parasites, generally much smaller than bacteria” (Live Science, 2018). They release DNA or RNA into the host cells to replicate themselves. Two prominent viruses that occur in Africa, Lassa and Zika, have caused significant loss of life. These viruses present themselves in very different ways and have different modes of transmission to humans with little to no medical treatments available. This report will evaluate the threat to public health in Queensland through the possibility of a Lassa or Zika virus outbreak and focusses on the following four criteria - distribution, effect, treatment, and control methods.
The rabies virion consists of single-stranded, negative- sense RNA contained within a bullet- shaped, bilayered envelope. The genome encodes five structural proteins. Three of these, the transcriptase, nucleoprotein, and phosphoprotein complex with the genome to form an inner nucleocapsid. The matrix protein forms the inner side of the bilayered lipid envelope and the glycoprotein forms the outer layer and spike-like projections, the target of virus neutralizing antibody
Virus Infect Peripheral Nervous System Next virus infects nerves in peripheral nervous system. Virus particles from the site of bite reached the nerves by the retrograde transport. iv. Virus Infect Brain Virus replicates in dorsal root ganglion and from there travels up spinal cord to brain and after reaching in brain start infecting it. v. Infection in other parts of the body After infecting the brain virus does not stop there instead it travels from brain via nerves to other tissues such as eyes, kidneys and salivary glands.
The first two stages exo-erythrocitic cycle and the erythrocytic cycle occur in the human host, whereas the final sporogonic stage continues in the mosquito. The life cycle starts when the mosquito infects the human blood with the malaria parasite. The plasmodium travels to the liver via the bloodstream. Furthermore, the parasites multiply in the liver and proceed to invade red blood cells; moreover, parasites enter a phase of sexual reproduction that continues in the mosquito's gut. The parasites complete sexual reproduction and then rapidly multiply to produce many more parasites that are readily transmitted to other human hosts.
The non-specific resistance of gram-negative bacteria is recognized as a limitation in the treatments of infections of these organisms. However, the general pattern of resistance is well known and stable, so that drugs are prescribed of which the infecting organism are not inherently resistant. Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics usually but not always after exposure to the antibiotics, this type of resistance results from changes in the bacterial genome. In bacteria, acquired resistance is driven by two genetic processes, which are mutation and selection that are