Mosquitoes pose a huge health hazard as they spread diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and encephalitis. This article gives you an overview of some these diseases and some tips on how to protect your child from mosquito borne diseases. 1. Malaria Malaria is a common mosquito-borne disease in India. Malaria can occur all the year around but the number of cases increases during the monsoon season.
Typhoid is a common global bacterial disease spread by the consumption of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected individual, which consist of the bacterium Salmonella enteric subsp. Enteric serovar Typhi.  The infection has received numerous names, such as stomach fever, abdominal typhus, infant remittent fever, enteric fever, slow fever, nervous fever and phytogenic fever. The term typhoid means "similar to typhus" and initiates from the neuropsychiatric warning sign common to typhoid and typhus.  In spite of this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are different diseases and are initiated by diverse species of bacteria.
Acute gastroenteritis is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract that commonly affects young children. During an episode of gastroenteritis there is an increased loss of water and electrolytes through vomiting and diarrhoea. When the lost fluid and electrolytes are not replaced adequately, a deficit of water and electrolytes develops resulting in to dehydration (WHO, 2005). When untreated, dehydration is the main cause of death due to gastroenteritis. Acute watery diarrhoea accounts for 80% of all childhood diarrhoea and causes 50% of all childhood deaths (WHO, 2005).
In adults, this primary infection is more severe and in immunocompromised patients, it can be followed by complications such as, high fever, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis (Gershon et al., 2013). During this primary infection, the virus can be transported to the sensory neurons through retrograde transport from cutaneous lesions along microtubules (Kennedy et al., 20015). Once the virus reaches the dorsal root ganglia, it establishes its latent cycle and it might be reactivated when the immune system is weakened causing zoster, the secondary infection (Arvin,
The pathogenesis of this self limiting dengue can be broadly divided into 2 categories, that is: (a) The general pathogenesis of the virus, beginning from the entry to the body till the cause of fever. (b) The dengue virus replication and infectious cycle which occurs in the cell 18.104.22.168 General pathogenesis of dengue fever When a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites a person, the virus enters the skin together with the mosquito's saliva. It binds to and enters white blood cells (specifically the immature dendritic cell or Langerhans cell located in the skin), and reproduces inside the cells while they move throughout the body. The white blood cells respond by producing a number of signalling proteins, such as cytokines and interferon, which are responsible for many of the symptoms, such as the fever and severe pains. However it is to be noted that this fever is actually self limiting.
After exposure, it usually takes 2-7 days (but sometimes up to 2 months) until illness starts. First there are a few days of symptoms like headache, cough, and muscle aches. But there is usually no runny nose. Then after a few days, there can be trouble breathing, chest pain, large lymph glands, worse headache, stomach pain, and vomiting or diarrhoea. With lung anthrax, bacteria almost always enters the bloodstream, leading to severe illness or death.
Symptoms- Children with rotavirus infection occur fever, nausea and vomiting often followed by abdominal cramps and watery diarrhoea. They can also complain of cough and runny nose. As with all viruses, some rotavirus infections can cause few or no symptoms, especially in adults. Sometimes the diarrhoea that accompanies Rotavirus infection is so severe that it can quickly lead to dehydration, diagnosed in case of thirst, irritability, restlessness, lethargy, sunken eyes, dry mouth and tongue, dry skin, decreased need to urinate and, in infants, dry diapers for several hours. Some other symptoms includes- • Frequent episodes of vomiting for more than three
The main route of infection is via mosquitoes. When an infected mosquito bites a human, it takes blood. Simultaneously, it injects a malicious form of the parasite through its saliva. The parasite, at that stage, is known as a sporozoite. This sporozoite then moves via the blood stream to the liver, where it infects a hepatic cell.
Determinants of Pneumonia in children Indonesia study case Introduction Pneumonia commonly is caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and some strains of respiratory virus like influenza, parainfluenza, and adenovirus (NCID, 2005). This disease in children is characterized by cough with difficult or rapid breathing and chest indrawing. (Wardlaw et al, 2006) Pneumonia contributes greatly for children death below 5 year in the world. Figure 1 describes that more than 10 million children in the world die before they reach their fifth birthday. Approximately 2.6 millions children younger than 5 years die annually from Pneumonia, most of them in the low income country.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Dengue whish also known as breakbone, or dandy fever is an acute, mosquito-borne fever that is incapaciting but rarely caused fatal. This disease is also characterized by extreme pain in and stiffness of the joints hence the name ‘breakbone fever’. The most severe form called dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which is characterized by hemorhaging blood vessels thus bleeding from the nose, mouth and internal tissues. May causing ausually fatal condition known as dengue shock syndrome due to blood vessel collapse if untreated (Kara Rogers, 2011). The first record that represent human cases of dengue were around A.D 992 in China with symptoms of fever, rash, eye pain, arthralgia and hemmorhage (John L. Capinera, 2008).